All articles by Avishek Majumder

Microbial fuel cells for harvesting electricity

In the process of biological electricity generation, the two electrodes- anode (negative terminal) and cathode (positive terminal) are usually connected by conductive materials. Micro-organisms produce the electrons, after which transferred to cathode using electron mediators and nano-wires (Bose et al. 2018). Bioremediation is the process of using micro-organisms to neutralize or remove contamination from waste. However, nowadays it is also an important technique used to produce electricity from organic and inorganic matter catalyzed (Cookson 2011). Microbial Fuel Cells or Bio-Electrochemical Systems (BES) combine biological catalytic redox activity with abiotic electrochemical reactions and physics. However, in 1911, Potter deduced the idea of electricity generation using microbes. Furthermore, studies by Santoro et al. (2017) has led to the improvement of concept and practical developments. Thus, by using organic substrates, such as domestic wastewater, animal wastewater, oil wastewater, and wasted sludge microbial fuel cells, integrated with anaerobic and aerobic treatments using bacteria as catalysts. Therefore they can lead to effective bioelectricity generation (Bose et al. 2018). Read more »

Application of applied statistics in the Pharma industry

Applied statistics in the pharmaceutical industry is traced to Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments in 1962. According to the amendment, firms must prove the safety of the drug and also present substantial evidence of its efficiency (Burger et al, 2012). This led to an increased need for statisticians, especially with the adoption of genomics and proteomics for drug discovery. Read more »

Text frequency or wordlist analysis in Hamlet II

In the previous article, introductory aspects and the interface of Hamlet II were presented. Text analysis, or text frequency analysis, is an important and common text-based analysis using Wordlist. In this analysis, the transcript or the text file is assessed for occurrence or repetition or frequency of words. This is known as the wordlist analysis in Hamlet II. Wordlist creates a list of all the most repetitive words in a text file thereby showing the importance of the reoccurring words.

Text analysis is the technique of assessing texts from a draft or mainly a transcript. Text analysis also helps to create an overview of the most common words and show relevance to a research study. Text frequency analysis is also known as wordlist. Read more »

Geospatial modelling to understand malarial prevalence

In the previous article, a trend-based assessment was conducted to show the prevalence of Malaria in India. Geospatial modelling is another form of trend based pictorial assessment used by the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry. This article presents state-wise malaria incidence data to test the patterns of prevalence of malaria in India between 2011 and 2015. Geospatial  modelling helps in comparing the intervention efficacy with respect to different states in India and the aspect that contribute to its inefficacy.  Read more »

The Government of India played a major role in curbing malarial prevalence

Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease that is preventable and curable. It is mainly caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Common parasites that cause malarial prevalence in India are Plasmodium viviax, and Plasmodium falciparum. It is not only prevalent in India, but also in south-east Asia, Africa, and a few areas of the American continent (National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, 2017). Various techniques, strategies, and intervention methods are used to control and manage the prevalence of malaria. Read more »

Importance of epidemiological purpose in disease prevention

The epidemiological purpose of pharmaceutical industry comprises mainly towards the provision of quality drugs for prevention and intervention of emerging infectious disease (EID). Data gets collected in form of mortality rate, incidence rate and prevalence of the infectious agents. Epidemiological purpose also comprises of usage of statistics to not just explore the prevalence of diseases but also explore the efficacy of drugs (Ahmad et al., 2013). Usage of epidemiological studies helps to retrieve strain and genome-specific causal organisms of infections. Data gathered help development of the personalized and strain-specific drugs for disease prevention and intervention. Outcomes help the government in deciding better treatment plans, policies for drugs and set a budget for disease prevention and intervention. Read more »

Epidemiological data play an important role in healthcare policy making

Epidemiology is a branch of study that predicts the occurrences and patterns of diseases in different groups of the population. It helps in assessing the reason and factors behind the occurrence of a disease. Epidemiological data helps to plan and strategies to prevent and manage epidemic diseases or illness. Epidemiological findings thereby help Government and healthcare organisations to implement methods of prevention, intervention and policymaking. In addition, it also helps the pharmaceutical industries to assess clinically if the intervention methods or drugs or treatment methods are efficient enough for eradication and prevention of the disease. Epidemiology study is based on statistics and the evaluation of data in the implementation of policies and the control of infectious diseases. Read more »

Epidemiological purpose in emerging infectious disease management

The epidemiological studies play a major role in treatment planning and management of infectious diseases. Healthcare organizations have an epidemiological purpose towards infectious disease management by the provision of better treatment methods. This in turn help in policy implementation. Therefore, it is important to explore and analyze various epidemiological techniques employed for infectious disease management and also examine its role in deciding policies for the prevention and control of malaria in India. Read more »

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