All articles by Avishek Majumder

Emerging role of Bio marker in healthcare and medical sector

A bio marker or biological marker, are defined as an indicator of a biological state of a living body. It is a characteristic that is measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes. In addition, they also help in pathogenic processes or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Read more »

Interface of the Hamlet II software

As mentioned in the previous article, Hamlet II helps in quantitative analysis of text. It helps assess the joint occurrences or recurrence of word frequencies in a vocabulary list or in content. Read more »

Global prevalence and distribution of cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) refers to a diverse range of conditions that affect the heart or blood vessels. Major types of CVDs’ include coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure. CVDs’, still remain the major cause of death across all the regions of the world. In 2015, approximately 17.7 million people died across the globe due to CVDs’, which represents 31% of total global deaths (WHO, 2017). The established risk factors associated with CVDs’ are obesity, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol and smoking (Laslett et al., 2012). Read more »

Identification of common pipeline for biomarker discovery

As discussed in the previous article the biomarkers are any substance of biological origin, which is used as an indicator for certain medical condition within the biological system. Biomarker discovery comprises of a process of discovering biomarkers and is a multistep process that leads to clinical applications. Read more »

The importance of benchmarking in biomarker discovery and validation

Benchmarking is a process of comparing and contrasting best existing methods to new emerging techniques and methodologies. Benchmarking in biomarker discovery is a method of setting a baseline for identification and classification of new protein and molecules profiling technologies. Biomarkers are the best aid in understanding the cause, progression, diagnosis, regression and outcome of treatment of a disease. A number of biomarkers are currently very popular in diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases, infections, immunological and genetic disorders as well as in cancer (Perera and Weinstein, 2000). Read more »

Global cancer prevalence and its geographical distribution

Cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that spread to other parts of the body via metastases. It has been a topic of research worldwide since the early 1960s. Since then it has had a great impact on human health and economies worldwide (Jemal et al., 2010). Thus, global cancer prevalence has diversified from one geographical location to another. There are several cancer causing reasons including lifestyle (external) factors, such as tobacco use, excess body weight; internal factors, such as inherited genetic mutations, hormones and immune conditions (American Cancer Society, 2017). Read more »

Novel drug development to curb malaria

Malaria is a mosquito borne blood disease, which remains a devastating global health problem. It is caused by the obligate intraerythrocytic protozoa belonging to genus Plasmodium. Due to the increased preventive measures including insecticide-treated bed nets and safety measures such as artemisinin based combination treatments (ACTs) the global malaria mortality rate has reduced by 30% (Bhattarai et al., 2007). Nevertheless, according to World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that approximately 200 million people around the world contract malaria resulting in 20% of deaths (WHO, 2016). Read more »

Importance of statistics in randomised controlled trials (RCT)

Quantitative studies are those that rely on measures that can be represented by discrete numbers, such as age, weight or body temperature. Epidemiological studies too can be quantitative in nature. A quantitative epidemiological study can be broadly classified as ‘observational’ or ‘experimental’. It depends upon the extent of intervention by the researcher in the subject’s exposure or actions. Observational studies are further classified as ‘descriptive’ and ‘analytical’. The flow chart below gives a brief idea of the classification of epidemiological studies. In this article, common statistical tools and techniques used to study the data gained from randomised controlled trials (RCT) or clinical trials is studied. Read more »

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