All articles by Ekta Goel

How to test time series autocorrelation in STATA?

The previous article showed how to perform heteroscedasticity tests of time series data in STATA. It also showed how to apply a correction for heteroscedasticity so as not to violate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) assumption of constant variance of errors.  This article shows a testing serial correlation of errors or time series autocorrelation in STATA. Autocorrelation problem arises when error terms in a regression model correlate over time or are dependent on each other. Read more »

Lag selection and cointegration test in VAR with two variables

The previous article showed that the three-time series values Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFC) and Private Final Consumption (PFC) are non-stationary. Therefore they may have long-term causality. The general assumption, in this case, is that consumption PFC affects GDP, therefore these variables might be cointegrated. Resultantly, they may lead to an estimation of a stationary variable. Johansen cointegration test in Vector Auto Regression (VAR) with two variables will help check the same. Read more »

Expectancy theory and performance management system

Victor Vroom proposed the expectancy theory of motivation in 1965. It is the most comprehensive and realistic, underlying other motivation theories. Expectancy theory featuring the performance management system states that the motivation of employees and their reflected behavior in the workplace depends upon the following key elements:

  • Expectancy,
  • Instrumentality and
  • Valence.

Expectancy is a belief for performing a job satisfactorily, instrumentality involves rewards for performances and valence focuses on the value of the positive rewards (Parijat & Bagga, 2014). Read more »

Developing questionnaire for Theses and Dissertations

Merriam Webster defines questionnaire as “a written set of questions that are given to people in order to collect facts or opinion about something”. For a researcher, however, questionnaire refers to a set of questions developed “for obtaining statistically useful or personal information from individuals” [1]. In other words, questionnaire is a ‘tool’ used for collecting and recording information. This article discusses the types of questionnaires used in theses and dissertations and what all should be considered in questionnaire development process. Read more »

Developing conceptual framework in a research paper

Before studying the application of conceptual framework, we need to first define it. It can be defined as a ‘visual’ presentation of key variables, factors or concepts and their relationship among each other which have been or have to be studied in the research either graphically or in some other narrative form (Miles and Huberman, 1994). Read more »

Interpretation of factor analysis using SPSS

We have already discussed about factor analysis in the previous article (Factor Analysis using SPSS), and how it should be conducted using SPSS. In this article we will be discussing about how output of Factor analysis can be interpreted. Read more »

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