The previous article focused on the importance of environment in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) mandate of India. It highlighted that after the introduction of the Companies Act, 2013, there has been a growing awareness among the Indian companies towards sustainable practices. The strategies framed for the businesses in India now focus on their economic, social and ethical impact for fulfilling long term development goals. In the last few years, India witnessed a significant increase in average expenditure on CSR activities (Rai & Bansal, 2014). An increasing number of Indian companies nowadays report CSR information in their sustainability reports (Ghosh, 2016). These findings indicate a movement in a positive direction.Read more »
Measurement scales while framing a questionnaire play an important role to understand the characteristics of the variables. A questionnaire is a collection of a set of questions. A survey, on the other hand, includes the process of making the questionnaire, collecting the responses, aggregating the data and analysing it (SurveyMonkey, 2019). Therefore, the questionnaire is a subset of a survey. A previous article discussed the important points to remember while making a questionnaire. It also mentioned about two different types of questionnaires.Read more »
India highly depends on foreign investments in the form of foreign direct investments (FDI) to fund its economic growth (Demirhan & Masca, 2008). Amongst all the sectors, the manufacturing sector and service sector has undergone a transformation and experienced high growth rates in the past few years. However, from the data on FDI, it can be observed that few key industries belonging to these two sectors have boosted at a faster rate than the others and attracted more FDI than the others.
A hypothesis by definition is a proposition or a number of propositions that reflects a prediction. In simpler words, a hypothesis is a statement that assumes a relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable. In research, hypotheses provide the basis for data collection and data analysis. The data analysis is essentially applications of research tools and techniques to prove or disprove the hypothesis. However, before testing, it is important to frame the hypotheses properly. This sometimes poses a challenge.Read more »
There different instruments to collect primary data and the most widely used is the questionnaire in a survey method. Correlation and regression tests are two of the basic statistical tools that are widely applied to analyze data. In research, these tests are particularly used when the researcher seeks to find relations between variables or impacts of variables on other variables in order to draw inferences. Correlation analysis helps to find the degree of linear association between any two variables. Regression analysis, on the other hand, helps to determine whether a set of variables (independent variables) have any impact on another variable (dependent variable). Here ‘impact’ means how much of the variations (change) in the values of the dependent variable can be explained by the variations (change) in the values of the independent variables. Furthermore, correlation analysis is done first. Once it is found that there is a significant relationship between the dependent and the independent variables, the researcher can proceed to conduct a regression analysis. Read more »
When a thesis is evaluated internally within the department, then less than a month’s time is designated to prepare for the thesis defense. However, if it is sent to a panel of external examiners, then more than a month can be designated. This time varies for different Universities, colleges, institutes, and countries. The goal of this examination is to check the ability of the scholar to present their work before a pool of audience comprising of members of the thesis committee, faculty members and fellow scholars. Read more »
The previous article on making corporate social responsibility (CSR) mandatory mentioned that such a need arises due to the responsibility of profit-driven companies towards society including the environment. The CSR mandate caters to the strategies needed for building a cleaner environment. The importance of environment stems from its inclusion in the concept of sustainability as put forward by the Brundtland Commission in its report in 1987. The report emphasized maintaining a balance between the needs of the present generation and that of the future generation. It identified three dimensions of sustainability namely social, economic and environment. It argued that environmental concerns are significant and sustainable development is the one that satisfies the needs of the present generation but not at the cost of the ability of the future generations to satisfy their own needs (Kuhlman & Farrington, 2010). Read more »
The environmental policies of any country intend to bring its environmental concerns to the forefront in pursuit of sustainable development. India has emerged as the sixth largest economy in 2018. It is also the second most populous country in the world with over 1.35 billion people (World Population Review, 2018). The country has been doing fairly well in terms of the creation of economic opportunities and large-scale urbanization. With the changing times, the country’s demand for expansion of urban environment is increasing, resulting in a boost in its real estate and the industrial sector. This article critically analyses the environmental policies vis-a-vis of Mauritius, Singapore, Japan, the Netherlands, and the UK. Read more »