Category: Biology »

The importance of benchmarking in biomarker discovery and validation

Benchmarking is a process of comparing and contrasting best existing methods to new emerging techniques and methodologies. Benchmarking in biomarker discovery is a method of setting a baseline for identification and classification of new protein and molecules profiling technologies. Biomarkers are the best aid in understanding the cause, progression, diagnosis, regression and outcome of treatment of a disease. A number of biomarkers are currently very popular in diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases, infections, immunological and genetic disorders as well as in cancer (Perera and Weinstein, 2000). Read more »

Novel drug development to curb malaria

Malaria is a mosquito borne blood disease, which remains a devastating global health problem. It is caused by the obligate intraerythrocytic protozoa belonging to genus Plasmodium. Due to the increased preventive measures including insecticide-treated bed nets and safety measures such as artemisinin based combination treatments (ACTs) the global malaria mortality rate has reduced by 30% (Bhattarai et al., 2007). Nevertheless, according to World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that approximately 200 million people around the world contract malaria resulting in 20% of deaths (WHO, 2016). Read more »

Multiple sequence alignment studies of merA protein sequence

In the previous article, similar gene sequences of an established mercuric ion reductase or merA gene were identified. They were studied from the NCBI database using BLAST tool. In this article, the protein sequence of merA enzyme is studied with respect to its closely related sequences found in NCBI database, through Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA). MSA refers to alignment of three or more biological sequences, protein or nucleic acid of similar length. Read more »

Importance of statistics in randomised controlled trials (RCT)

Quantitative studies are those that rely on measures that can be represented by discrete numbers, such as age, weight or body temperature. Epidemiological studies too can be quantitative in nature. A quantitative epidemiological study can be broadly classified as ‘observational’ or ‘experimental’. It depends upon the extent of intervention by the researcher in the subject’s exposure or actions. Observational studies are further classified as ‘descriptive’ and ‘analytical’. The flow chart below gives a brief idea of the classification of epidemiological studies. In this article, common statistical tools and techniques used to study the data gained from randomised controlled trials (RCT) or clinical trials is studied. Read more »

Epidemiology and public Health challenge from emerging infectious diseases

Infectious diseases have plagued humans before the dawn of civilisation. In the last few decades, after the discovery of penicillin, a large number of these diseases have been controlled or eliminated. However, infectious diseases have a tendency to recur in a different population or region than before. This phenomenon is termed as emerging infectious diseases (EID). Old infectious diseases re-emerge due to developed attributes like resistance or increased virulence (The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation, 2014). One of the reasons is increased globalisation and environmental changes. This leads microbes to spread in new regions. Another reason is increasing drug resistance, making EIDs’ a grave concern (WHO Community, 2014). Read more »

Importance of bioremediation and its future prospects

Bioremediation helps cleaning up polluted environments, including soils, groundwater and marine environments. Such systems can include bacteria, fungi, algae and plant species. They are capable of metabolizing, immobilizing or absorbing toxic compounds from their environment. However, a major advantage of these systems is that they are less harmful to the environment with minimum or no by-products. Read more »

Allergic factors responsible for Asthma

Examination of allergic disease trends around the globe demands an in-depth study on possible risk factors that can lead to this group of diseases. These risk factors could help understand the varying prevalence rates of allergic disorders between countries that have been observed so far Read more »

Role of serological and molecular marker analysis in emerging infectious diseases

Traditional methods of infectious disease diagnosis are Gram- staining, pathogen culturing, and study of virus morphology by inoculating culture. Conventional techniques are time consuming and lack sensitivity. Serological and molecular markers are new diagnostic approaches that offer rapid, sensitive and more accurate diagnostic results. Molecular markers are specific short sequence of DNA or RNA. Molecular markers are capable of detecting polymorphism in the specific chromosomal region associated with unique chromosomal locations, that can be random. On the other hand, serological markers are used to measure the concentrations of an antibody. These are potentially the most direct way to decipher the dynamics of a population’s responsiveness and diagnosis of a disease (Metcalf et al., 2016). Read more »

We are looking for candidates who have completed their master's degree or Ph.D. Click here to know more about our vacancies.