Category: Biology »

Mercury bioremediation processes to combat mercury contamination

Mercury bioremediation processes as mercury occurs naturally in the environment and is found in both elemental inorganic and organic forms. It generally occurs in two oxidation states, Hg+1 and Hg+2, they are commonly found as:

  • elemental mercury,
  • mercuric chloride,
  • mercuric sulfide (cinnabar ore),
  • and methylmercury.

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Bio-remediation as a solution for common textile dyes in soil

Textile dyes are artificial or natural substances used to dye fabric. Artificial dyes are one of the worst contributors to soil pollution as they contain mutagenic, cytotoxic, cancer and allergy causing properties (Khandare & Govindwar 2015). This is aggravated by the fact that the textile dye industry release by-products in the form of effluent, causing extensive pollution. However, existing physio-chemical technologies to clean up polluted water or soil are expensive and cause secondary problems in terms of disposal. Read more »

A bio-remediation solution for pharmaceutical pollution

Bio remediation is a technology that ‘treats’ environmental pollution  using microbes, plants or their by-products. It helps in removing xenobiotic and recalcitrant pollutants through physical or chemical methods. Pharmaceutical industry releases large quantities of recalcitrant pharmaceutical by-products. Additionally, farming and municipal wastes contribute to the pollution. Although pharmaceutical products are biologically active, they are non-biodegradable and recalcitrant in nature, which makes pharmaceutical pollution difficult to be rid of using conventional methods (1).

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Drug-related hypersensitivity due to Abacavir induced ADR

In the previous article Drug related hypersensitivity, prevalence, diagnosis and therapeutic considerations, we discussed about how different drugs lead to different allergic responses. However, it is important that mechanism of different drug is studied which leads to ADR. In the present article Abacavir, a drug which is used for the treatment and prevention of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) (Hewitt et al., 2002) is being discussed. Abacavir is a synthetic carbocyclic nucleoside which is categorised under the class of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Read more »

Feasibility of bio-remediation for Chromium pollution and its effectiveness

In the previous article, the hazards and possible solutions for lead and arsenic pollution from the perspective of bioremediation, were discussed. This article on the other hand, explores problems posed by chromium pollution in soil and the possibility of bioremediation as solution. It is well known that chromium metal exists in various forms in the environment, mainly as trivalent [Cr (III)] and hexavalent [Cr (VI)] cation. However, the water soluble hexavalent chromium is the most toxic form of the element with strong carcinogenic properties. Read more »

Prevalence and diagnosis of drug related hypersensitivity and its treatment

Research has shown that drug related hypersensitivity is an immune mediated response towards a drug. However, adverse reaction of the drug varies from person to person. Antibiotics and non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs are the most common causes of hypersensitive reactions. The chances of developing hypersensitive reactions are higher when the patient takes the drug intra dermally. It should nevertheless be noted that drug allergies are not inherited. Both organ specific and systemic symptoms have been observed due to drug-related hypersensitivity. Look out for common symptoms such as: Read more »

Feasibility of bio-remediation as a solution for Lead pollution in soil

Soil is formed from the gradual breaking and weathering of rocks and covers of the landmass of earth as a thin layer. It is a complete ecosystem in itself and its maintenance is of utmost importance for the continuity of life processes of microbes, plants and animals. However, the quality of soil ecosystem is compromised due to increasing human activities resulting in release of pollutants. Furthermore, one such pollutant contributing to soil pollution is the discharge of high concentration of heavy metals (as shown in the figure below). Most noteworthy, Lead occurs most abundantly on Earth, constituting 0.002% of the total crust (1). This article discusses the need for Lead bioremediation in soil. Furthermore, the use of bio-remediation to mitigate the impact has also been discussed.

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Prevalence and diagnosis of insect allergy and its therapeutic considerations

Insect sting can cause allergic response which results in pain, itching, redness and swelling. Furthermore, people allergic to stinging venom can cause more serious reaction i.e. anaphylaxis (Bernstein et al., 2011; Department of Health, 2016). Insect Allergy is also known as Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA). This  induces large local reaction (LLR) or systemic allergic responses which affect a local area of more than 10cm within 24 hours at the sting site. Hymenoptera belongs to sub-order Aculeate category and includes super-families of Apoidea, Vespidae, and Formicidae (Jutel et al 2013).

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