Penicillin was discovered by Ernest Duchesne in 1896 and Alexander Fleming by isolating the antibiotic substance from the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The fungus produces this antibiotic when its food resources are limited as a mechanism to kill bacteria. It is used in the treatment of a variety of infections (such as scarlet fever, skin, ear and throat infection, pneumonia, rheumatic fever, chorea). Read more »
The prevalence of different allergies has been explored in the previous articles across 5 case countries and comparisons have been drawn with prevalence in India. The findings implicate that incidence of several allergic responses have been rising continuously mainly due to development in technology and increase in severe pollution. Allergic reactions in present times are affecting nearly 20-30% of the Indian population. Allergy has become a cause of concern for both individuals and government. This is because of its social and economic impact in terms of cost of healthcare, loss of working hours and lower quality of life among others. This article explores the social and economic burden of allergic diseases in India.
Radioactive substances occur naturally in the environment and they emit small amounts of radiations. However, anthropogenic activities produce high levels of radioactive materials that are released into the environment causing pollution. The most common radioactive metals are Uranium, Plutonium, Polonium, Radium, Thorium and Cesium. Among these, Uranium is the most frequently and naturally occurring radioactive substance and possesses weak radioactivity properties. Therefore it is important to focus on mitigating its pollution and uranium bioremediation is one of them.
Mercury bioremediation processes as mercury occurs naturally in the environment and is found in both elemental inorganic and organic forms. It generally occurs in two oxidation states, Hg+1 and Hg+2, they are commonly found as:
- elemental mercury,
- mercuric chloride,
- mercuric sulfide (cinnabar ore),
- and methylmercury.
Textile dyes are artificial or natural substances used to dye fabric. Artificial dyes are one of the worst contributors to soil pollution as they contain mutagenic, cytotoxic, cancer and allergy causing properties (Khandare & Govindwar 2015). This is aggravated by the fact that the textile dye industry release by-products in the form of effluent, causing extensive pollution. However, existing physio-chemical technologies to clean up polluted water or soil are expensive and cause secondary problems in terms of disposal. Read more »
Bioremediation is a technology that ‘treats’ environmental pollution using microbes, plants or their by-products. It helps in removing xenobiotic and recalcitrant pollutants through physical or chemical methods. Pharmaceutical industry releases large quantities of recalcitrant pharmaceutical by-products. Additionally, farming and municipal wastes contribute to the pollution. Although pharmaceutical products are biologically active, they are non-biodegradable and recalcitrant in nature, which makes pharmaceutical pollution difficult to be rid of using conventional methods (1).
In the previous article Drug related hypersensitivity, prevalence, diagnosis and therapeutic considerations, we discussed about how different drugs lead to different allergic responses. However, it is important that mechanism of different drug is studied which leads to ADR. In the present article Abacavir, a drug which is used for the treatment and prevention of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) (Hewitt et al., 2002) is being discussed. Abacavir is a synthetic carbocyclic nucleoside which is categorised under the class of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Read more »
In the previous article, the hazards and possible solutions for lead and arsenic pollution from the perspective of bioremediation, were discussed. This article on the other hand, explores problems posed by chromium pollution in soil and the possibility of bioremediation as solution. It is well known that chromium metal exists in various forms in the environment, mainly as trivalent [Cr (III)] and hexavalent [Cr (VI)] cation. However, the water soluble hexavalent chromium is the most toxic form of the element with strong carcinogenic properties. Read more »