Soil is formed from the gradual breaking and weathering of rocks and covers of the landmass of earth as a thin layer. It is a complete ecosystem in itself and its maintenance is of utmost importance for the continuity of life processes of microbes, plants and animals. However, the quality of soil ecosystem is compromised due to increasing human activities resulting in release of pollutants. Furthermore, one such pollutant contributing to soil pollution is the discharge of high concentration of heavy metals (as shown in the figure below). Most noteworthy, Lead occurs most abundantly on Earth, constituting 0.002% of the total crust (1). This article discusses the need for Lead bioremediation in soil. Furthermore, the use of bio-remediation to mitigate the impact has also been discussed.
Insect sting can cause allergic response which results in pain, itching, redness and swelling. Furthermore, people allergic to stinging venom can cause more serious reaction i.e. anaphylaxis (Bernstein et al., 2011; Department of Health, 2016). Insect Allergy is also known as Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA). This induces large local reaction (LLR) or systemic allergic responses which affect a local area of more than 10cm within 24 hours at the sting site. Hymenoptera belongs to sub-order Aculeate category and includes super-families of Apoidea, Vespidae, and Formicidae (Jutel et al 2013).
Occupational allergy is an allergic reaction caused when exposed to allergenic substance found at work place. This can be both indoor or outdoor. It is an important public health issue due to its high prevalence and socio-economic burden. It contributes significantly to the global burden of Asthma. Similarly among other diseases like; rhinitis, eczema, skin diseases and conjunctivitis can also increase due to this allergy.
Urticaria is a heterogeneous skin disorder, which is characterized by development of wheals on the skin followed by Angioedema. This can appear in any part of the body. Symptoms of the Urticaria are:
- raised skin,
- itchy bumps,
- blanching (when pressed the centre of red hive turns white).
Furthermore, scratching, exercise, emotional stress may worsen it.
Plastic waste or debris are one of the most hazardous pollutant entering the seas and oceans, after oil spills and sewage discharge. First of all, plastic waste contributed 60-80% of the marine litter and in 2012, global plastic production reached an all-time high of 330 million tons per year. Furthermore, it is estimated that of the total plastic waste produced every year, most of the plastic waste enters landfills. However, approximately 13 million tons enters the oceans every year (1,2).
Food allergy is an allergic reaction which is instigated with consumption of food which contains certain proteins, which can overreact with the immune system. Some of the major signs and symptoms of food allergy are:
- red or itchy skin,
- teary eyes,
- throat tightness,
- trouble breathing (food allergies: reducing the risks, 2009).
Asthma is an anti-inflammatory chronic disease which affects the lungs. It mainly affects the airway linings which swells and the muscles encircling the airway tightening causes the airway narrow. This makes it difficult to get airway in and out of the lungs which causes the bronchial hyper responsiveness. The symptoms of the disease include:
- abdominal pain,
- increase in respiratory pulse rates (Corn 2013).
When the ocular surface is exposed to allergen, it results in the inflammation of conjunctiva (inside of eyelid covering the eyeball) and cornea leading to allergic conjunctivitis also known as pink eyes. The prevalence of the allergic conjunctivitis is found more in summer and spring (Høvding, 2008). The substance that triggers the conjunctivitis include: