Stroke has become a major health problem across the world, they are divided into two main types, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic stroke occurs as a result of the disturbance in the blood supply to the brain, often due to blockage in one of the arteries that leads to the brain. The underlying condition for this interruption in the development of lipid deposits that line the walls of the blood vessels. This condition is also known as “atherosclerosis.” Read more »
With the increasing pace of development in the agriculture and manufacturing industries, there is a release of a large amount of biomass waste into the environment. Excess load of this hazardous waste has led to environmental pollution (Kamaludeen et al., 2003). Bioremediation is a process which uses biological agents i.e. microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and fungi, to make the soil and water sources free from contaminants of the biomass (Strong and Burgess, 2008). The consortium of specific microorganisms grows on the contaminated sites to perform their action to eliminate the waste. These microorganisms utilize the contaminants as nutrients or energy sources (Tang et al., 2007).
Political epidemiology towards infectious disease management primarily identifies needed factors for the evaluation of the efficacy of policies. These factors comprise of cases of incidence, mortality, and demographic values. Factors like existing policies and programmes for the eradication and control programmes help in comparison and assessment of infectious disease management programmes (Taylor, 2009). Read more »
In India, the key strategies to curb malaria incidences gets revised in every five-year plan under the guidelines of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). The Government of India focuses on two main intervention and control methods of malaria. Healthcare initiatives like Mukhyamantri Swasthya Seva Mission, and National Rural Healthcare Mission under the five-year plan and healthcare expenditure to support these missions. Malaria control and intervention are an integral part of these healthcare initiatives. In this regard, Meta-analysis study was conducted by using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) to assess the government policy effectiveness under the 5-year plan scheme in accordance with the malaria incidence and deaths over the time span of last five year plans. Read more »
Biomarker discovery starts with a small number of samples in the form of preclinical exploratory studies to identify promising biomarkers form a pool of diseased and non-diseased groups. A typical biomarker analysis dataset consists of samples divided into two or more classes and each described by several features or variables. The use of statistical tools in biomarker discovery and research possess great influence and application. Read more »
Mass spectrometry is a tool that helps in characterizing the proteins. It measures the mass of protein molecules through different steps and using different components and show a positive response to a protein biomarker research. Proteomics is a branch that works on the study of proteins and their interactions in human physiology (Parker et al., 2010). However, the field has established itself as the backbone of modern day clinical chemistry. Proteomics deals with characterizing the proteins in the human body. Furthermore, these characteristics help clinical chemists the understand the interplay of different protein structure in our body. The mass of protein molecules undergoes three main steps of identification and measurement. Read more »
In the process of biological electricity generation, the two electrodes- anode (negative terminal) and cathode (positive terminal) are usually connected by conductive materials. Micro-organisms produce the electrons, after which transferred to cathode using electron mediators and nano-wires (Bose et al. 2018). Bioremediation is the process of using micro-organisms to neutralize or remove contamination from waste. However, nowadays it is also an important technique used to produce electricity from organic and inorganic matter catalyzed (Cookson 2011). Microbial Fuel Cells or Bio-Electrochemical Systems (BES) combine biological catalytic redox activity with abiotic electrochemical reactions and physics. However, in 1911, Potter deduced the idea of electricity generation using microbes. Furthermore, studies by Santoro et al. (2017) has led to the improvement of concept and practical developments. Thus, by using organic substrates, such as domestic wastewater, animal wastewater, oil wastewater, and wasted sludge microbial fuel cells, integrated with anaerobic and aerobic treatments using bacteria as catalysts. Therefore they can lead to effective bioelectricity generation (Bose et al. 2018). Read more »
In the previous article, a trend-based assessment was conducted to show the prevalence of Malaria in India. Geospatial modelling is another form of trend based pictorial assessment used by the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry. This article presents state-wise malaria incidence data to test the patterns of prevalence of malaria in India between 2011 and 2015. Geospatial modelling helps in comparing the intervention efficacy with respect to different states in India and the aspect that contribute to its inefficacy. Read more »