In the previous articles, gene and protein of interest were studied with respect to their closely related variants found in NCBI database. In this article, gene and their products are studied on the basis of a standardised approach of annotating the correct information. This is based on gene annotation and gene ontology. Gene ontology refers to a consistent method of describing genes and gene products across all species and databases. Read more »
Mercury is a highly potent neurotoxin impacting the function and development of the central nervous system in people and wildlife. Exposure to it in the form of vapours or organic methylmercury leads to neurological and behavioural issues. Moreover, mercury exposure is toxic to the digestive system, organs and the immune system (World Health Organization, 2017). Mercury pollutants in the environment are present in elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Global heavy metal contamination are increasing in soil due to industrialisation. Read more »
In the previous section, microbial remediation was studied. Bioremediation is a waste management technique to neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site. This is done with the use of organisms which can be microorganisms, fungi, plants or algae. They either metabolize pollutants to less toxic forms, assimilate or immobilize. Bioremediation works in two ways. First is enhanced growth of suitable organisms at the site. Other way is by introducing specialized microbes at the contaminated site to degrade contaminants. Read more »
In the previous article, the role and advantages of using forecasting models in disease epidemiology was discussed. Forecasting models are important tools assisting public health decision making. They help predict future disease trends, incidents and possible risks in a population or community. Read more »
Infectious diseases continue to pose significant threat to humans and animals. Stringent disease control policies and advancement in vaccines have not eradicated them. Therefore, in 2015 alone, 10 top deadly diseases were responsible for killing 30 million people. Among these diseases, communicable diseases like lower respiratory infections, diarrhea, tuberculosis and HIV were the major culprits (World Health Organization, 2017). Read more »
Penicillin was discovered by Ernest Duchesne in 1896 and Alexander Fleming by isolating the antibiotic substance from the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The fungus produces this antibiotic when its food resources are limited as a mechanism to kill bacteria. It is used in the treatment of a variety of infections (such as scarlet fever, skin, ear and throat infection, pneumonia, rheumatic fever, chorea). Read more »
The prevalence of different allergies has been explored in the previous articles across 5 case countries and comparisons have been drawn with prevalence in India. The findings implicate that incidence of several allergic responses have been rising continuously mainly due to development in technology and increase in severe pollution. Allergic reactions in present times are affecting nearly 20-30% of the Indian population. Allergy has become a cause of concern for both individuals and government. This is because of its social and economic impact in terms of cost of healthcare, loss of working hours and lower quality of life among others. This article explores the social and economic burden of allergic diseases in India.
Radioactive substances occur naturally in the environment and they emit small amounts of radiations. However, anthropogenic activities produce high levels of radioactive materials that are released into the environment causing pollution. The most common radioactive metals are Uranium, Plutonium, Polonium, Radium, Thorium and Cesium. Among these, Uranium is the most frequently and naturally occurring radioactive substance and possesses weak radioactivity properties. Therefore it is important to focus on mitigating its pollution and uranium bioremediation is one of them.