Category: Biology »

Prevalence of asthma and its therapeutic considerations

Asthma is an anti-inflammatory chronic disease which affects the lungs. It mainly affects the airway linings which swells and the muscles encircling the airway tightening causes the airway narrow. This makes it difficult to get airway in and out of the lungs which causes the bronchial hyper responsiveness. The symptoms of the disease include:

  • coughing,
  • wheezing,
  • abdominal pain,
  • fatigue,
  • increase in respiratory pulse rates (Corn 2013).

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Prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and its therapeutic considerations

When the ocular surface is exposed to allergen, it results in the inflammation of conjunctiva (inside of eyelid covering the eyeball) and cornea leading to allergic conjunctivitis also known as pink eyes. The prevalence of the allergic conjunctivitis is found more in summer and spring (Høvding, 2008). The substance that triggers the conjunctivitis include:

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Prevalence allergic rhinitis and its diagnosis with therapeutic considerations

Allergic rhinitis is a group of symptoms leading to nasal congestion, itching and inflammation. The symptoms occur when the subject is allergic to dust, mite, pollen (Seidman et al., 2015). It is mediated by IgE antibodies and the mast cells. The prevalence of the disorder is continuously increasing and affecting 10 – 30% of the global population (Ozdoganoglu & Songu, 2012). Read more »

Role of microbes in oil spills remediation and degradation of hydrocarbons

Oil spills have become a common sight in the oceans around the world. Such events are the direct result of human error during the transport of crude oil or refined petroleum products across countries. Remediation of oil spills have become an important point of focus for countries and environment agencies across the world. Read more »

Classification, techniques and cellular processes of microbial remediation

In the previous article, the concept of bioremediation was introduced as an answer to the rising instances of environmental pollution. Although the act of bioremediation can be performed by a wide range of organisms including plants, fungi and microorganisms. Microbial remediation has proven to be the most advantageous and efficient process owing to its wide span of metabolic pathways and enzymes. In this article, bioremediation as a process has been classified, on the basis of application and cellular level processes by the microorganisms.  Read more »

Allergies prevailing in India and its diagnosis measures adopted

A recent experimental study was conducted for a time period of 2003-2007 among 3389 patients suffering from different allergies in India. Results from the study indicate that, among the several allergies asthma, rhinitis and contact dermatitis were found to be more prevalent among the Indian population (Shaikh & Shaikh 2008). Similarly other allergies which have found prevalence include nickel sulphate and parthenium hysterophorus, penicillins, sulphonamides and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug allergies, house dust mite and D farinae allergies. Read more »

Diagnosing and understanding different types of allergy

The term allergy was first given by von Pirquet in 1906 to an immune response that is not protective to the host (Nieminen 2009). The purpose of immune system is to generate antibodies in response to pathogens or foreign matter. Immune system comprises of different cells which fight against infection using different mechanisms. Some of the cells which produce immune response are; B cells, T cells and phagocytes. Wherein, the B cells produce antibodies in the bloodstream by giving rise to plasma cells. T cells have surface receptors that mimic antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig). It is a form of glycoprotein, characterized into five types (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE and IgD)). And phagocytes swallow the invaded particle owing to their large size.  The antibody IgE is responsible for allergic responses (Works 2003). Read more »

CRISPR-Cas system is the new-age gene engineering technology

The CRISPR-Cas system is a form of genetic adaptive defence mechanism, found in bacteria and archaea, against invading nucleic acids and predatory viruses. It allows the host to remember, recognize and fight  invading infections. CRISPR, stands for clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats, are specific genetic loci found in the genome of most of the species of Prokaryotes and Archaea, as a part of the CRISPR-Cas system (Figure 1). Read more »

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