Category: Ecology »

Impact of rapid urbanization on the environment of India

Before 1991 the economy of India was highly dependent on the agricultural sector. Later with the opening of the economy in 1991, the contribution of the service sector to GDP increased leading to rapid urbanization. The service sector consists of activities like trade, transportation, hospitality, education, communication, health, entertainment and public services (Gautam & Singh, 2008; Pais, 2014). The below figure shows the contribution of the service sector to the GDP of India since the 1960s. The contribution of the service sector increased from 32.25% to 49.01% in 2018.

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Empirical evidence shows the impact of FDI on water pollution

Until the late 1990s’, ‘development’ encompassed economic and social well-being of a country i.e. rise in GDP, generation of employment opportunities and promoting trade balance. The millennium development goals and sustainable development goals set by the United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) is to promote environmental, social and economic sustainability. Environmental degradation from water pollution is being witnessed at an alarming rate owing majorly to economic activities.

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Impact of FDI inflows on water temperature in Indian rivers

Water temperature is identified as an important factor that influences the physical and chemical properties of water. The temperature of water influences the level of diseases occurred in water sources. A water temperature of 15°C or less is an acceptable level. A high degree of temperature leads to chemical reactions like dissolving of minerals from rocks or having higher electrical conductivity (Kale, 2016). Discharge of pollutants in water streams is the main contributor to high water temperature. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows on environmental pollution in India.

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FDI inflows have helped to minimise the faecal coliform levels in the Indian rivers

Faecal coliform is as an important indicator of water pollution. It represents the microorganisms present in the water due to the presence of faecal material of human and animals. This leads to contamination of water along with water-borne diseases from bacteria and pathogens. The Ministry of Urban Development had recommended a level of 500 MPN/100ml as the desirable limit and 2500 MPN/100ml as the permissible limit for rivers.

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India’s economic burden on its environment is heavier than anticipated

The environmental policies of any country intend to bring its environmental concerns to the forefront in pursuit of sustainable development. India has emerged as the sixth largest economy in 2018. It is also the second most populous country in the world with over 1.35 billion people (World Population Review, 2018). The country has been doing fairly well in terms of the creation of economic opportunities and large-scale urbanization. With the changing times, the country’s demand for expansion of urban environment is increasing, resulting in a boost in its real estate and the industrial sector. This article critically analyses the environmental policies vis-a-vis of Mauritius, Singapore, Japan, the Netherlands, and the UK. Read more »

India’s commitment towards environmental protection and climate change

There is a rising consensus for environmental protection across the world. Climate change is a concerning issue all over the world due to its manifold detrimental aftereffects. The term is interchangeable with the phrase “global warming”. Both terms refer to the rise in the mean global temperature resulting from increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the Earth’s atmosphere (EESI, 2018).  Read more »

Establishing a relationship between FDI and air pollution in India

The previous articles in this study established how Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) affects the economic growth of a country. In India, in the last two decades, the inflow of FDI has grown significantly. Similarly, its environmental pollution has also been rising since 1991 due to an increase in economic activity. This article empirically investigates the impact of FDI on air pollution in India. In order to do so, it establishes a long run association between FDI inflows and air pollution in the post reform period, i.e. since 1991. The previous article identified the common air pollution indicators, of which Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions is the most significant. The figure below shows that total GHG emissions have increased drastically in India. Read more »

Common water pollution indicators and their use in economic studies

The previous article reviewed the indicators of air pollution and their use in economic studies. This article focuses on a number of water pollution indicators and their use in economic studies. This is because indicators of water pollution help analyse the impact of economic growth on the environment. Water pollution refers to the contamination of water by toxic elements and harmful chemical agents. It implies an alteration in the natural state of water including its physical, chemical and biological properties. Water pollution due to chemicals from industrial toxic releases. Read more »

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