Air contamination is defined as the presence of toxins that affect the environment (Vallero 2011). India, as a rapidly developing nation, needs to manage its ecological issues well to minimise contamination of air, water and soil. The major factors for air pollution in the country are:
Arsenic is a heavy metal, known to occur naturally in the Earth’s crust, metal ores and sediments (both organic and inorganic forms). It is also found in the form of sulfides, oxides or salts of sodium, copper and iron among others. It exhibits different valences and is mostly encountered as trivalent Arsenite and pentavalent Arsenate, both of which are deemed toxic to humans (1). Naturally, this heavy metal enters groundwater from its natural geological bedrocks and also from arsenic rich geothermal fluids (2). However, human activities like smelting, extraction of metal, burning of petroleum, coal and wood, production of dyes, pharmaceutical industrial waste and pesticides, cause rampant arsenic pollution.
In the previous article, the concept of bioremediation was introduced as an answer to the rising instances of environmental pollution. Although the act of bioremediation can be performed by a wide range of organisms including plants, fungi and microorganisms. Microbial remediation has proven to be the most advantageous and efficient process owing to its wide span of metabolic pathways and enzymes. In this article, bioremediation as a process has been classified, on the basis of application and cellular level processes by the microorganisms. Read more »
Contaminated sites, whether on land or in aquatic environments are increasingly becoming a frequent sight. This is due to rapid increase in population and a fast pace of technological advancement. So direct consequence of such large scale contamination is loss of sources for fresh air and water. On the other hand exposure to dangerous chemicals lead to loss of natural habitat and its accompanying natural resources (2). Although several strategies have been applied time and again to control or restore such polluted habitats. However these methods are either cost intensive or inefficient. In such scenario bioremediation can be one of the best solutions to incidences such as:. Read more »
Organic waste often referred to as ‘green’ waste actually is that type of waste which originates from unprocessed and untreated materials such as food products, garden materials and lawn trimmings (Chernicharo, 2003). Organic waste commonly contains disposed biodegradable items scheduled to undergo further molecular breakage of carbon dioxide, methane gas or water. Read more »
Marine parks and marine reserves come under Marine Protected Areas (MPAs’), areas which are designated and effectively managed to protect marine ecosystems, processes, habitats and species. Which contribute to the restoration and replenishment of resources for social, economic and cultural enrichment (Reuchlin-Hugenholtz & McKenzie, 2015). These marine protected areas include subtidal and intertidal regions like wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, sea weed and sea grass among others. According to the United Nations, as of 2014, a total of 3.41% of world’s marine area is protected. Read more »
In comparison with urbanisation and industrialisation process at the global level, India is moving on uniform pattern to become an urbanized country. The share of urban population in the country is growing by 6% per decade (Butsch, Sakdapolrak, and Saravanan 2012). It means that India will become up to greater extent fully urbanized between 2040 and 2045. In the recent scenario, approximately 15% of the urban population of India is residing in one of the four largest metropolitan cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai which will grow to 42% by 2020 (Tripathi 2013). This growing pace of urbanization is posing health related problems for the urban population due to poor environmental hygiene. It is the result of growing pace of industrialization that poses risks to the urban population in every dimension. Read more »
In the twenty first century, global warming has become an issue of high concern among most countries in the world. Not even a single day is passed without hearing news such as farmers committing suicide because of meteorological drought or people being displaced by flood or heavy rainfall in a particular region. Read more »