Economic growth of a region results in improved standard of living. It leads to industrial and infrastructure development which in turn create job opportunities. However, these improvements come at the cost of a decline in the sustainability of the region when the adverse effects of economic expansion go unchecked for a long period. Read more »
The term ‘environment’ derives from the French word “environ,” which means “surrounding.” Environment includes both natural and atmosphere such as air, water, vegetation and extends up to the social system formulated. Read more »
With the ever-increasing population of the world, the utilization and therefore the demand for energy resources is also increasing. Also, the quick diminishing rate of the natural resources due to their degradation has created an urgent need to find alternative resources (Sasikumar & Papinazath, 2003). In the long run, bioremediation can help fulfill the increasing demands for energy resources, pollution control and waste management. Read more »
In the previous article, the role of genetic engineering in improving bioremediation were discussed. With rapid industrialization, heavy metal contamination and organic pollutants have increasingly affected soil and water bodies. These threaten the ecosystem, surface and ground waters, food and human health. Phytoremediation is a method which involves growing plants in a contaminated matrix to remove environmental contaminants. Read more »
Radioactive substances occur naturally in the environment and they emit small amounts of radiations. However, anthropogenic activities produce high levels of radioactive materials that are released into the environment causing pollution. The most common radioactive metals are Uranium, Plutonium, Polonium, Radium, Thorium and Cesium. Among these, Uranium is the most frequently and naturally occurring radioactive substance and possesses weak radioactivity properties. Therefore it is important to focus on mitigating its pollution and uranium bioremediation is one of them.
Air contamination is defined as the presence of toxins that affect the environment (Vallero 2011). India, as a rapidly developing nation, needs to manage its ecological issues well to minimise contamination of air, water and soil. The major factors for air pollution in the country are:
Mercury bioremediation processes as mercury occurs naturally in the environment and is found in both elemental inorganic and organic forms. It generally occurs in two oxidation states, Hg+1 and Hg+2, they are commonly found as:
- elemental mercury,
- mercuric chloride,
- mercuric sulfide (cinnabar ore),
- and methylmercury.
Textile dyes are artificial or natural substances used to dye fabric. Artificial dyes are one of the worst contributors to soil pollution as they contain mutagenic, cytotoxic, cancer and allergy causing properties (Khandare & Govindwar 2015). This is aggravated by the fact that the textile dye industry release by-products in the form of effluent, causing extensive pollution. However, existing physio-chemical technologies to clean up polluted water or soil are expensive and cause secondary problems in terms of disposal. Read more »