The previous articles in this study established how Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) affects the economic growth of a country. In India, in the last two decades, the inflow of FDI has grown significantly. Similarly, its environmental pollution has also been rising since 1991 due to an increase in economic activity. This article empirically investigates the impact of FDI on air pollution in India. In order to do so, it establishes a long run association between FDI inflows and air pollution in the post reform period, i.e. since 1991. The previous article identified the common air pollution indicators, of which Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions is the most significant. The figure below shows that total GHG emissions have increased drastically in India. Read more »
The previous article reviewed the indicators of air pollution and their use in economic studies. This article focuses on a number of water pollution indicators and their use in economic studies. This is because indicators of water pollution help analyse the impact of economic growth on the environment. Water pollution refers to the contamination of water by toxic elements and harmful chemical agents. It implies an alteration in the natural state of water including its physical, chemical and biological properties. Water pollution due to chemicals from industrial toxic releases. Read more »
The previous article discussed the role of six different types of pollution in the degradation of the environment. These were air, water, soil, thermal, noise and radiation pollution. The article also identified some of the key factors that contribute to the degradation and counteractive measures that developing countries can adopt. Air pollution is one of those six types of pollution that contaminates the environment. It is a major contributor. Researchers in the field of economics use these common air pollution indicators to assess the impact of air pollution on macro and microeconomic issues such as policy making, economic growth, and prediction of welfare costs. Read more »
Economic growth of a region results in improved standard of living. It leads to industrial and infrastructure development which in turn create job opportunities. However, these improvements come at the cost of a decline in the sustainability of the region when the adverse effects of economic expansion go unchecked for a long period. Read more »
The term ‘environment’ derives from the French word “environ,” which means “surrounding.” Environment includes both natural and atmosphere such as air, water, vegetation and extends up to the social system formulated. Read more »
With the ever-increasing population of the world, the utilization and therefore the demand for energy resources is also increasing. Also, the quick diminishing rate of the natural resources due to their degradation has created an urgent need to find alternative resources (Sasikumar & Papinazath, 2003). In the long run, bioremediation can help fulfill the increasing demands for energy resources, pollution control and waste management. Read more »
In the previous article, the role of genetic engineering in improving bioremediation were discussed. With rapid industrialization, heavy metal contamination and organic pollutants have increasingly affected soil and water bodies. These threaten the ecosystem, surface and ground waters, food and human health. Phytoremediation is a method which involves growing plants in a contaminated matrix to remove environmental contaminants. Read more »
Radioactive substances occur naturally in the environment and they emit small amounts of radiations. However, anthropogenic activities produce high levels of radioactive materials that are released into the environment causing pollution. The most common radioactive metals are Uranium, Plutonium, Polonium, Radium, Thorium and Cesium. Among these, Uranium is the most frequently and naturally occurring radioactive substance and possesses weak radioactivity properties. Therefore it is important to focus on mitigating its pollution and uranium bioremediation is one of them.