Category: Sociology »

Influence of urbanization on the prevalence of Malaria in India

Urbanization is one of the many risk factors for malaria prevalence in India (Anvikar et al., 2016). Urbanization influenced malaria prevalence has escalated over the past two decades in India. According to the UN Department of economics and social affairs, 55% of the world’s population lives in urban areas, which is expected to increase up to 68% by the year 2050 (UN Department of Economics and Social Affairs, 2018). This rise of urbanization predicts a massive rise in malarial prevalence, mainly, drug-resistant and mutated strains of Plasmodium. This also means that the government of India, along with the pharma industry has a bigger role to play in managing the new challenge of increasing drug-resistant malarial vectors in India. Read more »

Understanding public healthcare expenditures by the Government of India

Forecasting public health expenditure by the Government of India is an important aspect to assess the government’s effectiveness towards disease control and policy implications. Assessing the trend in the public healthcare expenditure by the central government, predicted that the public health expenditure will get doubled in the next five years. Expenditures will rise from 267000 crores rupees in the year 2018 to 486000 crores rupees in the year 2022 (Ministry of Health & Welfare, 2017). Read more »

Distribution of Plasmodium strains of Malaria in India

Plasmodium genus causes an estimated 438,000 global deaths annually. In India, mainly two species of Plasmodium is prevalent, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax (Siwal, et al., 2018). P. vivax accounts for 53% of the total malaria cases in India. However, more of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum have been identified in India over the last two decades. The burden of malaria in India is complex from highly variable malaria epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species. Therefore this article explores the distribution of both strains in India in four states of India, i.e. Odisha, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. These states have indicated a consistent high cases of malaria. Read more »

Common associated malarial risk factors in India

Malaria is a vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium, carried and spread by Anopheles species of mosquito. It is prevalent across the globe, largely in the countries near to the equator as well as tropical countries and is associated with many risk factors (Midekisa et. al., 2012). Associated malarial risk factors are largely favoured by the climatic and economic conditions. It largely occurs in the regions having high rates of precipitation, humidity, and rainfall making it optimum for the malaria vector to breed and flourish. Read more »

Application of Meta-analysis in disease intervention research

In the previous article, various statistical methods and tools were discussed whereby meta-analysis is also an important statistical tool. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique that combines the findings from independent studies, such as clinical studies, epidemiological studies and intervention studies (Uman, 2011). There must be no biases in the study and one must always look for the presence of heterogeneity and explore the robustness of the main finding by calculating the sensitivity. Disease intervention is a technique used to either control, cure, or eradicate health-related issue or disease. Read more »

Economic burden of atopic dermatitis in India and the USA

Atopic dermatitis presents the variation in prevalence gradients across geographically distinct areas. Hence, the investigation into economic burden of the disease is essential to understanding the impact in developing and developed regions. Read more »

Global cancer prevalence and its geographical distribution

Cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that spread to other parts of the body via metastases. It has been a topic of research worldwide since the early 1960s. Since then it has had a great impact on human health and economies worldwide (Jemal et al., 2010). Thus, global cancer prevalence has diversified from one geographical location to another. There are several cancer causing reasons including lifestyle (external) factors, such as tobacco use, excess body weight; internal factors, such as inherited genetic mutations, hormones and immune conditions (American Cancer Society, 2017). Read more »

Epidemiology and public Health challenge from emerging infectious diseases

Infectious diseases have plagued humans before the dawn of civilisation. In the last few decades, after the discovery of penicillin, a large number of these diseases have been controlled or eliminated. However, infectious diseases have a tendency to recur in a different population or region than before. This phenomenon is termed as emerging infectious diseases (EID). Old infectious diseases re-emerge due to developed attributes like resistance or increased virulence (The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation, 2014). One of the reasons is increased globalisation and environmental changes. This leads microbes to spread in new regions. Another reason is increasing drug resistance, making EIDs’ a grave concern (WHO Community, 2014). Read more »

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