Examples of different citation methods

Here are few citation methods briefly explained and how you should cite your resources in your thesis and dissertation as per your University guidelines.

1. Harvard

Within the text:

  • In text: Phillips (1999)
  • In Quote: Adair (1988) “the centrepiece will tend to be goals and ……………………………………

At the end list:

  • Book: Barnes, R. (1995) Successful study for degrees, 2nd edition, London: Routledge.
  • Written Course Material: Dhann, S. (2001) CAE0001LWR Unit 5: Note taking skills from lectures and readings, Exeter: Department of Lifelong Learning.
  • Government Publication: Department for Education and Employment (DfEE), (2001) Skills for life: The national strategy for improving adult literacy and numeracy skills, Nottingham: DfEE Publications.
  • Conference Paper: Hart, G., Albrecht, M., Bull, R. and Marshall, L. (1992) ‘Peer consultation: A professional development opportunity for nurses employed in rural settings’, Infront Outback – Conference Proceedings, Australian Rural Health Conference, Toowoomba, pp. 143 – 148.
  • Journal Article: Muller, V. (1994) ‘Trapped in the body: Transsexualism, the law, sexual identity’, The Australian Feminist Law Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, August, pp. 103-107.

2. Oxford

(Refer to link: http://guides.is.uwa.edu.au/content.php?pid=385139&sid=3156563)

Within the text:

Generally referencing is numerical in this case. For example: Arsenate of lead was all that was used as far as I can remember though I think nicotine came in somewhere’.3 Here 3 is then defined either in Footnote or End note. The main difference between footnote and end note is explained with an example.

  • Footnote: 1 S. Ratnagar, Trading Encounters: From the Euphrates to the Indus in the Bronze Age, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 23.
  • End note: 1Ratnagar, S., Trading Encounters: From the Euphrates to the Indus in the Bronze Age, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004.

At the end list:

  • Book: Blackledge, A., and Creese, A., Multilingualism: a Critical Perspective, London, Continuum, 2010.
  • Journal Articles: Mintz, S., ‘Food Enigmas, Colonial and Postcolonial’, Gastronomica, vol. 10, no. 1, 2010, p. 149.
  • Internet/ Website: Dibble, B., and Milech, B., ‘Elizabeth Jolley Research Collection’, http://john.curtin.edu.au/jolley/index.html, 2008, (accessed 1 August 2010).
  • Conference: Kozicz, G., ‘Architecture of the Empty Shells of Nyar ma’, Discoveries in Western Tibet and the Western Himalayas: Essays on History, Literature, Archaeology and Art: PIATS 2003, Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the Tenth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 41-54.

3. MLA

(Refer to this link: http://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/Guide70.pdf)

Within the text:

  • In text: (Wordsworth 263(Page No))

At the end list:

  • Book: McLean, Bethany and Peter Elkind. The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron. New York: Portfolio, 2004.
  • Journal Article: Mann, Susan. “Myths of Asian Womanhood.” Journal of Asian Studies. 59.1  (2000): 835-62.
  • Website: Perry Willett . Victorian Women’s Writers Project. Indiana University, May.  2000. Web. 10 February 2006.
  • Government Publication: Department of Health & Children, Ireland. A Vision for Change: Report of the Expert Group on Mental Health Policy. Dublin: Stationary Office, 2006
  • Conference: O’Connor, John. “Towards a Greener Ireland.” Discovering Our Natural  Sustainable Resources: Future Proofing, University College Dublin, 15–16 March 2009.  Dublin: Irish Environmental Institute, 2009. 65 – 69.

4. ASA

(Refer to this link: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/583/03/)

Within the text:

  • In text: (Gouldner 1963)

At the end list:

  • Book: Corbin, Juliet and Anselm Strauss. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Journal Article: Conger, Rand. 1997. “The Effects of Positive Feedback on Direction and Amount of Verbalization in a Social Setting.” American Journal of Sociology 79:1179-259.
  • Government Document: New York State Department of Labor. 1997. Annual Labor Area Report: New York City, Fiscal Year 1996 (BLMI Report, No. 28). Albany: New York State Department of Labor.

5. APA

(Refer to this link: https://www.usq.edu.au/library/referencing/apa-referencingguide#How_to_cite_references_within_the_text_of_an_assignment)

Within the text:

  • In text: (Brown, 1991)

At the end list:

  • Books: Bernstein, D. K., & Tiegerman, E. (1989). Language and communication disorders in children (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merill.
  • Journal: Radford, M. (2001). Aesthetic and religious awareness among pupils: Similarities and differences. British Journal of Music Education, 18(2), 151-159. doi:10.1017/s0265051701000249
  • Website: American Psychological Association. (2008). HIV Office on Psychology Education (HOPE). Retrieved June 24, 2008, from http://www.apa.org/pi/aids/hope.html
  • Conference paper: Liu, C., Wu, D., Fan, J., & Nauta, M. M. (2008, November). Does job complexity predict job strains? Paper presented at the 8th Biannual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, Valencia, Spain.

6. Chicago Manual Style

(Refer to this link: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html)

Within the text:

  • In text: (Jones 1987)

At the end list:

  • Book: Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
  • Journal: Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.
  • Website: David Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner,” review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan, New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/23/books/review/23kamp.html.


(Refer to this Link: http://www.ieee.org/documents/ieeecitationref.pdf)

Within the text:

  • In text: Use of numbers to designate the references [1], [2].. etc

At the end list:

  • Books: B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986
  • Online Website: J. Jones. (1991, May 10). Networks (2nd ed.) [Online]. Available: http://www.atm.com.
  • Periodicals: Ye. V. Lavrova, “Geographic distribution of ionospheric disturbances in the F2 layer,” Tr. IZMIRAN, vol. 19, no. 29, pp. 31–43, 1961 (Transl.: E. R. Hope, Directorate of Scientific Information Services, Defence Research Board of Canada, Rep. T384R, Apr. 1963).
Shruti Datt

Shruti Datt

Project Handler at Project Guru
Shruti is B-Tech & M-Tech in Biotechnology. Some of her strengths include, Good interpersonal skills, eye for detail, well devised analytical and decision making skills and a positive attitude towards life. Her aim in life is to obtain a responsible and challenging position where her education and work experience will have valuable application.
She is a true Piscean. She loves doing things to perfection with passion. She is very creative and likes to make personalized gifts for her dear ones, this is actually something that keeps her going. Shruti loves adventure sports and likes river rafting and cliff jumping.
Shruti Datt

Related articles

  • What is referencing? Referencing is an essential part in any academic paper. It is important that you cite the source of your borrowed idea and quote. By providing the source you are acknowledging in your paper that you have read the work and have recognized the referred author's ideas.
  • How to do the Chicago Manual of Style referencing? Chicago Manual of Style referencing style was incepted in 1906 by the University of Chicago Press (University of Chicago, 2017). It follows two styles: note & bibliography and the author-date system.
  • Most used citation formats The formats of citation on the sources used in the research may vary depending on the discipline in which the research is being done.
  • Common referencing styles and their differences The references list should include details for all your citations in your paper. It should be in alphabetical order by author with all the different types of material in one sequence.
  • Understanding referencing in a research Reference is a document with detailed description from which you have taken a small portion of data while writing your dissertation.


We are looking for candidates who have completed their master's degree or Ph.D. Click here to know more about our vacancies.