Present and future of small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

Present and future of small and medium enterprises (SMEs)Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are an important part of the Indian economy. Though they are small in size, their contribution to any economy cannot be ignored. There is no common definition of SMEs universally, and the parameters defining it differ across countries. They are often characterized on the basis of their size of operations, value of assets, turnover, revenues and employment generation. Apart from these quantitative criteria, a few qualitative parameters are also frequently used to signify it. These include the nature of management and ownership, the area of operations, and the sources of capital. However as a layman, SMEs can be described as small sized firms operating often in their local area, targeting a small market and have limited access to capital. They have a very insignificant market share. Since they have a smaller market share, they also have very little control over the market and price.

SMEs and the Indian economy

The SMEs contribute around 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in India and employs some 60 million people in the country. The estimates provide there are 26 million SMEs in the organized sector in India. The importance of SMEs in India can be assessed well with the fact that they occupy 90% of the industrial units in the country. The sector also contributes 40% of the total exports.  But at the same time, SMEs in India are confronted with critical challenges of availability of finance, skilled manpower, limited access to technology and markets. However, a number of these challenges that they face in their routine business activities relate to their lack of business knowledge and training. The entrepreneurship in large number of SMEs in India suffers from a knowledge gap and they hardly know proper procedures of bookkeeping, accounting, manpower training, organizational governance and marketing. Most of the SMEs are still not affiliated by any rating agencies. Moreover, large number of the SMEs also lack proper succession plans further adding to the risks of their long-term survival. Financial institutions thoroughly scrutinize all such factors before sanctioning any finance to the SMEs. Lack of capital leads to all the further problems for them regarding technology and manpower acquisition.

Future of the SMEs

As Mr. Kamath, the non-executive chairman of Infosys recently claimed, the future belongs to SMEs. In India, the economy is largely agriculture based and a major chunk of output is contributed by rural India. Most of the agro-based units in rural India are SMEs representing the strong potential of SMEs in economic growth of India. However, the potential lies for all over the globe. A recent article in Harvard Business Review also focused on the importance of SMEs by suggesting that if an economy promotes its SMEs, it leads to diversification of the economy and thus it becomes less vulnerable to sector-specific shocks. But to realize their true potential, the SMEs need to re-structure their organizations and modernize their management practices.


  • Lemmon, G. (June 28, 2012). “Promoting Entrepreneurship in Vulnerable Economies.” Harvard Business Review.
  • PTI (August 17,2012). “Keep proper account books to get easy loans: Experts to SMEs.” The Economic Times.
  • PTI (February 24, 2012). “SMEs will define next decade: Infosys’ KV Kamath.” The Economic Times.

Ankita Agarwal

Analyst at Project Guru
Ankita is working with the editorial board of Project Guru as a Research Analyst and Writer. With Masters in Commerce and Business Studies, Ankita learned much of what she knows about management through experience. She has previously worked in various financial institutions like Birla Global, HDFC Ltd. and Citi Financial. She is self-motivated and writes for the Knowledge Tank section of Project Guru. She has authored more than 80 articles so far in Human Resources Management, Strategic Management, Finance and Marketing. She likes to pen her thoughts about the latest issues gripping these areas across the world.

Related articles

  • An overview of the Indian textile industry The Indian textile industry has occupied a prominent place in the economic development of the country since independence. The industry has expanded at a very fast rate to become the second largest producer of textile and garments.
  • An overview of the Indian coal scam The Coal Scam or the “Coalgate” scandal has marred India’s reputation as a thriving economy yet again and exposed the magnitude of irregularities in the management of key reservoir of natural resource- Coal in 2012.
  • An overview of the growing chemical industry in India The Indian chemical industry has gained a major share in Asia’s growing contribution to the global chemical industry. It has also emerged as one of the preferred destinations for investment in the chemical industry worldwide (Chambers, Road, & Nadu, 2012).
  • Challenges faced by the Indian real estate sector The Indian real estate sector has come a long way since the 1990s' by becoming one of the fastest growing markets in the world. It is not only successfully attracting domestic real estate investment but foreign investments too.
  • Small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs’) of the world From large firms, the focus of business analysts has today shifted to Small and Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs'). The growing importance of SMEs' has also been the result of increasing economic contribution. Statistics provide that SMEs' account for more than 95% of enterprises across […]


We are looking for candidates who have completed their master's degree or Ph.D. Click here to know more about our vacancies.