PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses

The PRISMA framework or Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), is a set of guidelines or steps developed by Moher, (2013). These steps are useful for systematic literature reviews, critical literature analyses and meta-analyses. The PRISMA tool or framework uses a set of methods to systematically search papers and literature for review based studies. In addition, PRISMA is also based on the formulated inclusion and exclusion criteria in any type of study that systematically assesses the quality of chosen papers and either includes for the study or excludes for the study.

PRISMA is used mostly in medical and pharmaceutical researches, however, in recent years the use of PRISMA is also done in management studies and other non-medical studies.

The PRISMA concept

There are a few important things to note while formulating PRISMA. The PRISMA is based on the 27-item quality checklist broadly divided into:

  • Title,
  • Abstract,
  • Introduction,
  • Methods,
  • Results,
  • Discussion and,
  • Funds (Moher, 2013).

It is not mandatory to use all the checklist items; however, the inclusion and exclusion criteria are mostly based on the checklist items. The main role of the PRISMA checklist is to identify the quality of the papers identified using search strategies and the databases. In addition, the flow chart of PRISMA is based on 4 stages:

  1. identification,
  2. screening,
  3. eligibility and,
  4. included.

The PRISMA checklist

Section/topic Sl. No. Checklist item Level of importance
Title 1 Identify the report as a systematic review, meta-analysis, or both, or the type of paper and the title scope. High
Abstract 2 Clarity of the study with; background, aim, methods used, findings, conclusion and other relevant information. High
Introduction 3 Must have a rationale.High
  4 Must mention the objectives of the studyHigh
Methods 5 Protocol registration.Low
  6 Eligibility criteria mentioned.Moderate
  7 Information sources or the data collection sources.High
  8 Search strategies or the research paradigm/philosophy.Moderate
  9 Study selection or the research approach.Moderate
  10 Data collection process or the sample size.High
  11 Data items.Moderate
  12 Risk of bias in individual studies. Low
  13 Summary measures or the tools of analysis High
  14 Synthesis of results or the methods of analysis High
  15 Risk of bias across studies Low
  16 Additional analyses Low
Results 17 Study selection or the key findings High
  18 Study characteristics or statistical presentations High
  19 Risk of bias within studies Low
  20 Results of individual studies or graphs and tabular presentations High
  21 Synthesis of results Low
  22 Risk of bias across studies Low
  23 Additional analysis Low
Discussion 24 Summary of evidence Moderate
  25 Limitations High
  26 Conclusions High
Funding 27 Information about funding or author conflict Low

Steps of forming the PRISMA framework

Step 1: Identify the papers on the basis of search strategies and the relevant databases used for searching and collecting research papers. Most common databases of literature include:

  • Google Scholar,
  • Embase,
  • IEEE Xplore,
  • EBSCO,
  • Cochrane and,
  • PubMed.

The first step does not involve inclusion or exclusion of papers.

Step 2: Screening the papers will involve using the quality checklist in stages. The first screening uses both the inclusion or exclusion criteria and the quality checklist to exclude the irrelevant papers.

Step 3: Check if the title of the papers found are corroborating the current study. In addition, include or exclude papers on the basis of availability of full text papers.

Step 4: Then check if the papers are in their specified language. Most scholars use English; however other may use their local languages like French, Japanese, Spanish and others. Inclusion or exclusion of papers are in this steps also seeks identify duplicate papers. This step only checks the 1st and 2nd checklist item.

Step 5: The main and the most important step is Eligibility of the papers. Prioritize to use the quality checklist in finding the eligibility of the papers. Use all or some of the checklist items on the basis of the criticalness of the papers.

Step 6: The last step involves critically reviewing the papers to address the aim of the current study.

The PRISMA flowchart (Moher, 2013)
The PRISMA flowchart (Moher, 2013)

Preparing the PRISMA flowchart

1. Identify the total number of papers collected from different papers and mention the sources.

2. Presenting the excluded and the included from the 1st screening and mention the reason for exclusion.

3. Again presenting the excluded papers while keeping in count that the number of included papers now is n=2153. Check the eligibility of the papers elected on the basis of the quality checklist items and present the reason for excluding the papers.

4. Repeat the step if needed where the number of papers included stands at 368.

5. Present the final number of papers included.

6. Include the eligibility and screening test again if the study further focuses on Meta-analysis.

References

Avishek Majumder

Avishek Majumder

Research Analyst at Project Guru
Avishek is a Master in Biotechnology and has previously worked with Lifecell International Private Limited. Apart from data analysis and biological research, he loves photography and reading. He loves to play football and basketball in his spare time with an avid interest in adventure and nature. He was also a member of the Scouts in his school and has attended Military training.
Avishek Majumder

Related articles

  • Learn how to empirically review the literature Empirical research according to Penn State University is based on “observed and measured phenomenon and derives the knowledge from actual experience rather than from theory or belief”.
  • Systematic review of literature A systematic literature review attempts ‘to identify, appraise and summarise all the empirical evidence. Evidence must meet pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question. A systematic review of literature helps to develop the study that allows identification, […]
  • How to write critical review in a dissertation? Dissertation writing is an important part of most post graduation and doctorate programs. Dissertation is basically a research that is intended to test the student’s ability to apply the theory into practice.
  • What is the difference between systematic review and critical review? Systematic review intends to find out the appropriate answers to the questions that have been developed in accordance with the research problem in a study.
  • Critically review or analyze literature in a research paper Critical review means you are identifying the problems or weaknesses of a previous research. That is the meaning of the word “critic”. For example, the job of a food critic is to criticise food served to him.

Discuss

We are looking for candidates who have completed their master's degree or Ph.D. Click here to know more about our vacancies.