Alkaloids and terpenoids from plant extracts have enormous beneficial aspects and are commercially used in the form of oxygenated, hydrogenated and dehydrogenated derivatives (Cushnie, Cushnie & Lamb, 2014). However, they are also produced by different species of microorganisms and equally helps in antibacterial activities (Mabhiza, Chitemerere & Mukanganyama, 2016). Alkaloids and terpenoids produced by both microorganisms and plants have a similar impact on various harmful bacteria. Therefore, it is important to understand and explore the contrasting chemical and structural composition of different alkaloids and terpenoids found in plants and micro-organisms.Read more »
In the process of biological electricity generation, the two electrodes- anode (negative terminal) and cathode (positive terminal) are usually connected by conductive materials. Micro-organisms produce the electrons, after which transferred to cathode using electron mediators and nano-wires (Bose et al. 2018). Bioremediation is the process of using micro-organisms to neutralize or remove contamination from waste. However, nowadays it is also an important technique used to produce electricity from organic and inorganic matter catalyzed (Cookson 2011). Microbial Fuel Cells or Bio-Electrochemical Systems (BES) combine biological catalytic redox activity with abiotic electrochemical reactions and physics. However, in 1911, Potter deduced the idea of electricity generation using microbes. Furthermore, studies by Santoro et al. (2017) has led to the improvement of concept and practical developments. Thus, by using organic substrates, such as domestic wastewater, animal wastewater, oil wastewater, and wasted sludge microbial fuel cells, integrated with anaerobic and aerobic treatments using bacteria as catalysts. Therefore they can lead to effective bioelectricity generation (Bose et al. 2018). Read more »
The concept of personalized medicine was first promoted with pharmacogenomics data on oncology trials which demonstrated subject’s unique genetic makeup (genome) influence on their response to medications (The Office of the Commissioner FDA, 2015). Treatment biomarkers comprise of genes or a DNA sequence or an RNA strand which expresses uniquely in every individual. Read more »
In the previous article, similar gene sequences of an established mercuric ion reductase or merA gene were identified. They were studied from the NCBI database using BLAST tool. In this article, the protein sequence of merA enzyme is studied with respect to its closely related sequences found in NCBI database, through Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA). MSA refers to the alignment of three or more biological sequences, protein or nucleic acid of similar length. Read more »
Radioactive substances occur naturally in the environment and they emit small amounts of radiations. However, anthropogenic activities produce high levels of radioactive materials that are released into the environment causing pollution. The most common radioactive metals are Uranium, Plutonium, Polonium, Radium, Thorium and Cesium. Among these, Uranium is the most frequently and naturally occurring radioactive substance and possesses weak radioactivity properties. Therefore it is important to focus on mitigating its pollution and uranium bioremediation is one of them.
The CRISPR-Cas system is a form of genetic adaptive defence mechanism, found in bacteria and archaea, against invading nucleic acids and predatory viruses. It allows the host to remember, recognize and fight invading infections. CRISPR, stands for clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats, are specific genetic loci found in the genome of most of the species of Prokaryotes and Archaea, as a part of the CRISPR-Cas system (Figure 1). Read more »
Amines are broadly classified as aliphatic and aromatic amines. Aliphatic amines are further classified as primary (1º), secondary (2º) and tertiary (3º), based on the number of organic groups attached to the Nitrogen atom. Read more »