Solid waste management is the process by which solid waste is collected, segregated, transported, processed, recycled or disposed of, and finally monitored in such a way that it is least harmful to health and the environment. The main sources of solid wastes are industrial, agricultural, commercial and domestic activities. The local government is responsible for the management of nonhazardous residential and institutional waste, whereas commercial and industrial waste is supposed to be taken care of by the generator.
Solid waste treatment
The constituents, proportion, density and other characteristics of solid wastes widely vary from country to country and even town to town depending on various aspects such as economic development, geographic location, climate and social conditions. Reduction and recycling is the need of the day. Prior to treatment, it is essential to analyze, segregate and determine the best possible way of its disposal. For example, industrial wastes like scrap metal and paper can be easily recycled. In other cases, biochemical conversion and thermal routes can be employed to recover energy from waste. The disposal method should fulfil the present requirements and anticipate future situations. Improper handling of solid waste will not only lead to losses but will also prove to be a health hazard (the spread of diseases or chemical poisoning) and cause environmental damage (water, land and air pollution).
By employing technological innovations, organizational development of the system and increasing awareness of people, the hazards due to solid waste can be minimized. The explosion in world population and rapid urbanization is changing the nature of solid waste management from mainly a low priority, localized issue to an internationally pervasive social problem. It is therefore imperative for us to quickly develop a capable and efficient solid waste management system.
- C. S. Rao, 2006. Environmental Pollution Control Engineering. New Age International(P) Ltd.
- http://edugreen.teri.res.in/• Kurian Joseph, 2002. Perspectives of solid waste management in India. In: International Symposium on the Technology and Management of the Treatment & Reuse of the Municipal Solid Waste, Shanghai, 2002.