The previous article reviewed the process and utility of Nvivo coding query for data analysis. It demonstrated connections among nodes and between nodes and classification. On the other hand, Nvivo word frequency query helps to list the most frequent words in the transcripts. It helps to search textual content of sources, nodes, folders and cases. This article explains how to generate Nvivo word frequency query.
This query helps to perform three functions:
- Identify possible themes.
- Analyse the most frequently used word in a particular demography or node.
- Look for any exact word or broaden search to find most frequently occurring concepts.
Starting word frequency
- Click on ‘Query’.
- Select ‘word frequency’.
- A window will appear in detail view of Nvivo.
To initiate Nvivo word frequency query, click on ‘Select Items’ as shown in the figure above. Select the nodes, interviews, case or folder which need the word frequency analysis. A dialogue box ‘Selected Project Items’ will appear as shown in the figure below. For instance in the case research, to perform word frequency on all the nodes, click on ‘Nodes’ and then ‘OK’.
After selecting the nodes, click on ‘OK’. In the new window, click on ‘Run Query’ on top right corner of ‘Word Frequency Query’ window. The word frequency results will appear in a detail view.
Removing futile words
All the words will appear during Nvivo word frequency query. Words which do not follow any possible theme will also appear. They are therefore futile for a query. For example, ‘students’, ‘yes’, ‘classes’, ‘class’, ‘get’ do not indicate any theme. Therefore, there is an option to remove these words and refine the search results. To remove the unwanted words:
- Long press CTRL.
- Select all irrelevant words.
- Right click and select ‘Add to Stop Word List’.
A new dialogue box will appear. It will list all the words selected to remove. Click on ‘Ok’ to remove the words.
The resultant search contains all the words that reflect any theme in qualitative data. The resultant word frequency search can also be created as ‘Nodes’.
The results of word frequency search is previewed in four formats:
- Word Cloud,
- Tree Map and
- Cluster Analysis.
‘Summary View’ represents the word frequency search in the form of ‘List of words’. The list is present in the order of highest to lowest weighted percentage. Weighted percentage is highest for the word which occurs most frequently in selected node. It is lowest for the word which appears least frequently (figure below). In the case research, ‘participation’, ‘school’, ‘higher’ and ‘average’ are the most frequently used words in the selected nodes. To identify the theme or trend related to the words, click on them. A document will open in detail view displaying the sentences carrying these words.
‘Word Cloud’ is a map that displays up to 100 words in varying font sizes. Here frequently occurring words are in larger fonts. It is a quick summary of selected nodes. It lists the factors covered on the selected nodes. Word cloud is also an attractive representation tool. Word cloud of word frequency search can be viewed by clicking on ‘Word Cloud’ on lower right corner of the window.
To save this word cloud, either export or print or simply copy to another window. Here the word cloud of case research has been exported and displayed.
The word cloud presents management, participation, activities, average, curriculum, etc. in larger font. The font size appears on the basis of their frequency of occurrence.
Like word cloud, Tree Map also displays up to 100 words as a series of rectangles. The more frequently occurring words are in larger rectangles.
‘Tree Map’ is another way of representing word search query. It is more usable in cases where a specific set of words are inquired in selected project items. Tree maps too can be exported, printed or copied to another window. The below figure displays the tree map of case research .
‘Cluster Analysis’ is covered in a separate article as a part of data visualisation. It is an exploratory technique for visualizing patterns in a project by grouping sources or nodes. The grouping takes place for similar words, coding or attributes value. In the present case, the cluster analysis is for similar words. To view cluster analysis of word frequency search, click on ‘Cluster Analysis’ icon on lower right corner of the window.
Cluster analysis can be exported, printed or copied to another window. The below figure displays the Cluster analysis of case research.
Lastly, to save the word frequency search, click on ‘Add to Project’.
A dialogue box will appear asking for the name and description of the word frequency query. After naming it, click on ‘OK’ to save in ‘Query’ folder.
Coding matrix for analyzing unrelated nodes
Nvivo word frequency query by Summary, Word Cloud, Tree Map and Cluster Analysis presented the words as per their frequency of occurrence. ‘Management’, ‘School’ and ‘Curriculum’ emerged as the most frequent words. However, for interpretation, along with the size of the word frequency, the context also matters. Another query type– coding matrix also helps to analyse unrelated nodes and attributes that contain points of intersection.