# Useful set functions in Python

By Abhinash & Priya Chetty on August 30, 2022

The previous article introduced the concept of sets. This article explores useful set functions associated with accessing, adding and removing elements from a set. Some of these are the same as used for manipulating lists, while others are unique to only sets.

## Determining the length of a set

The length of a set is the total number of elements in a set. The syntax to determine the length of a set is `len(set)`. This function is also used to determine the lengths of strings and lists.

``````a = {1,2,3,4,5}
print(len(a))``````
```#OUTPUT
5```

## Checking membership in a set

Checking membership in a set is a conditional method to determine whether a specific element occurs in a set. There are 2 operators; `element in set` and `element not in set` to check the occurrence of an element in a set.

``````a = {1,2,3,4,5}
print(3 in a)``````
```#OUTPUT
True```
``````a = {1,2,3,4,5}
print(6 not in a)``````
```#OUTPUT
True```

## Two set functions to add new elements

New elements can be added to sets using the syntax `set.add(newElement)`.

``````a = {1,2,3,4,5}
print(a)``````
```#OUTPUT
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}```

To add multiple elements use `set.update()`

``````a = {1,2,3,4,5}
a.update({6,7,8})
print(a)``````
```#OUTPUT
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}```

Similarly, other data types such as strings, lists, tuples and dictionaries can also be added. There is no need of converting other data types to sets in order to use this function.

## Three set functions to eliminate set elements

The `set.clear()` function is used to remove all the elements from a set.

``````a = {1,2,3,4,5}
a.clear()
print(a)``````
```#OUTPUT
set()```

To clear specific elements from a set use `set.discard(element)`

``````a = {1,2,3,4,5}
print(a)``````
```#OUTPUT
{1, 2, 3, 4}```

Similarly, `set.remove(element)` can also be used to eliminate set elements.

``````a = {1,2,3,4,5}
a.remove(5)
print(a)``````
```#OUTPUT
{1, 2, 3, 4}```

Priya is the co-founder and Managing Partner of Project Guru, a research and analytics firm based in Gurgaon. She is responsible for the human resource planning and operations functions. Her expertise in analytics has been used in a number of service-based industries like education and financial services.

Her foundational educational is from St. Xaviers High School (Mumbai). She also holds MBA degree in Marketing and Finance from the Indian Institute of Planning and Management, Delhi (2008).

Some of the notable projects she has worked on include:

• Using systems thinking to improve sustainability in operations: A study carried out in Malaysia in partnership with Universiti Kuala Lumpur.
• Assessing customer satisfaction with in-house doctors of Jiva Ayurveda (a project executed for the company)
• Predicting the potential impact of green hydrogen microgirds (A project executed for the Government of South Africa)

She is a key contributor to the in-house research platform Knowledge Tank.

She currently holds over 300 citations from her contributions to the platform.

She has also been a guest speaker at various institutes such as JIMS (Delhi), BPIT (Delhi), and SVU (Tirupati).

I am currently working as a Research Associate. My work is centered on Macroeconomics with modern econometric approach. Broadly, the methodological research focuses on Panel data and Times series data analysis for causal inference and prediction. I also served as a reviewer to Journals of Taylor & Francis Group, Emerald, Sage.