Data analysis by generating Nvivo coding query
The next step after processing data through coding and creating memos and classifications is analysis. Nvivo coding query eases the understanding of nodes and their interconnections. Given the vast array of nodes generated, researchers find it difficult to connect two nodes. Therefore examining elements and checking if such connection is possible is also challenging.
‘Queries’ in such situations assists in establishing connections and analyzing them. A ‘Query’ is generated to answer a question related to the project. For instance, the relationship between two nodes or one node and an attribute in qualitative analysis. There are three different query tools in Nvivo Pro and Nvivo Plus:
- Coding query
- Word frequency
- Coding matrix
This article covers the first type, coding query. The remaining two, i.e. word frequency and coding matrix are covered in the proceeding articles.
After coding (manual or auto), questions related to it can arise. One of the ways for asking questions is to generate an Nvivo coding query. For instance, in the case research, query regarding students’ performance in South Delhi schools (query on nodes regarding location attributes). To find out if the two nodes concerning ‘students’ performance’ and ‘students’ participation’ have any common code (node to node comparison query). For such purposes, coding query is useful. However, a ‘query’ does not generate correlation matrix. For this visit the article describing cluster technique under qualitative representation of data.
Nvivo coding query on nodes regarding attributes
Query: What is the students’ participation rate and performance in South Delhi schools?
To initiate the coding query for this question:
- Click on ‘Query’
- Click on ‘Coding Query’
- Select ‘Coding Query’ window will appear (Figure 1)
There are various search drop down icons in ‘Coding Query’ window. The selected ones will easily perform a query. Click on the icon ‘All Selected Nodes’ as shown in the figure above. This icon contains three drop down options:
- All Selected Cases.
- Any Selected Code.
- Any Case Where.
‘All Selected Cases’ helps to explore only a single node. ‘Any Selected Code’ helps to compare or explore two nodes simultaneously like in the present case, student’s participation and student’s performance. ‘Any Case Where’ option helps in coding queries based on attributes like in present case, school location as South Delhi. Selecting two of three drop down options in the present case; ‘All Selected Case’ and then narrowing the choice with either ‘Any Selected Node’ or ‘Any Case Where’ will show an additional drop down icon.
Step 1: Selecting concerned nodes
Since this query is based on two nodes, select ‘Any Selected Code’. Click on three dots (‘…’) to locate the concerned nodes to perform query. In the case research, the concerned nodes are students’ participation and performance.
After clicking on the three dots, a dialogue box will appear. It shows all the nodes, cases, sources and classification to select for coding queries. Select the concerned nodes; students’ participation and performance in case research and click on ‘OK’.
Step 2: Select attribute
The next step is to select the attribute (location as per our question). To get another drop down icon for selecting attribute, click on the “+” sign.
Select ‘Any Case Where’, since the next item for Nvivo coding query is attribute. Just like in case of nodes, click on three dots in adjacent and select concerned attribute (location in case research) to perform the coding query.
After clicking on the three dots, a dialogue box will appear to select the required attribute for performing coding query. Select the concerned attribute (like location in case research) and click on ‘OK’.
Step 3: Choosing values of attributes
Next, choose the values of attributes to research in the selected nodes. For instance, to analyze the performance and participation of students based on their school location. Since, school location is content variable, select “equals value” in the next drop down (figure 9).
The next drop down now allows selecting an attribute for analyzing nodes. For instance, to see student’s participation and performance in South Delhi, select ‘South Delhi’.
After selecting the required options, the coding query search window will appear. Click on ‘Run Query’ to generate results.
The results are generated in three formats:
- ‘References’ and
The figure below represents the results in the format of ‘References’. References link directly to the interview transcripts carrying codes content as per the query.
The figure below shows results in the format of ‘Summary’. Summary links directly to the interview transcripts carrying codes content as per the query. The % in the ‘Coverage’ column represents the intersection found in selected nodes with respect to selected attribute (location). For instance, Namita’s response on student performance is covered by 3.49% out of the entire responses on the particular node and Natasha’s 4.97%. The content can be viewed by clicking on the interview.
Generating Nvivo coding query on word frequency and coding matrix
‘Coding Query’ therefore helps to view the results on the basis of intersection between different nodes and between nodes and classification. In the case research, ‘coding query’ reflected the transcripts containing the selected nodes (student’s participation and student’s performance) of teachers (Namita and Natasha) belonging to the schools of South Delhi. Queries can also be generated using ‘word frequency’ and ‘coding matrix’ for responses obtained in each node and attribute in Nvivo.