How to change components in the rotated component matrix table of a factor analysis test?

By Priya Chetty on September 28, 2021

Apart from the KMO and Bartlett’s test table, the most important output while running the factor analysis test in SPSS is the rotated component matrix table. This table shows the classification of the variables into different components as per their factor loadings. The factor loadings will depend on how similar the entries of a variable in a dataset are. Therefore, variables with similar data will be grouped together in a single component, showing similar factor loadings.

For example, in a dataset of 100 consumers of a shampoo brand where the values of 20 statements are pertaining to 5 variables which are:

  1. look,
  2. feel,
  3. smell and,
  4. texture of the shampoo.

It is probable that the factor loadings of all statements under ‘feel’ will be similar, therefore they can be grouped under one component, ‘feel’. Take a look at the below image. It shows the statements with similar factor loadings grouped into one component.

Rotated component matrix table in factor analysis test
Figure 1: Rotated component matrix table in factor analysis test

Extraction method: Principal component analysis.

Rotation method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

a. Rotation converged in 7 iterations.

Now, to group statements EM1, EM2, EM3, EM4, EM5, EM6, EM10, EM11, and EM12 together instead of 3 different components, then this is what should be done:

  • Open the ‘Data View’ option of the dataset in SPSS.
  • Duplicate some entries (at least 35%) from EM1 to the rest of them.
  • Run the factor analysis test again.

The statements EM1, EM2, EM3, EM4, EM5, EM6, EM10, EM11, and EM12 will now be grouped together in one component in the rotated component matrix table.


Priya is the co-founder and Managing Partner of Project Guru, a research and analytics firm based in Gurgaon. She is responsible for the human resource planning and operations functions. Her expertise in analytics has been used in a number of service-based industries like education and financial services.

Her foundational educational is from St. Xaviers High School (Mumbai). She also holds MBA degree in Marketing and Finance from the Indian Institute of Planning and Management, Delhi (2008).

Some of the notable projects she has worked on include:

  • Using systems thinking to improve sustainability in operations: A study carried out in Malaysia in partnership with Universiti Kuala Lumpur.
  • Assessing customer satisfaction with in-house doctors of Jiva Ayurveda (a project executed for the company)
  • Predicting the potential impact of green hydrogen microgirds (A project executed for the Government of South Africa)

She is a key contributor to the in-house research platform Knowledge Tank.

She currently holds over 300 citations from her contributions to the platform.

She has also been a guest speaker at various institutes such as JIMS (Delhi), BPIT (Delhi), and SVU (Tirupati).