The Indian pharmaceutical industry has emerged as the third-largest country in the world in terms of volume with a turnover amounting to the US $ 21.04 billion in 2009. In addition to this, the industry includes more than 20,000 licensed companies that employ 500,000 people (Industry, 2011). Furthermore, the Indian pharmaceutical industry secured the top position among the science-based industries through a range of capabilities in production and technology. In terms of market segmentation, leading 250 pharmaceutical companies have controlled 70 % of the market (PwC, 2012).
Exports from the Indian Pharmaceutical industry
The Indian pharmaceutical industry has acquired the position of largest exporter among the developing countries. The export market is driven by price, quality and safety of the products. The Indian exports in the pharmaceutical industry have grown from US$ 7.24 billion in 2007 to the US $ 9.35 billion in 2009 (Price Waterhouse Coopers PwC, 2010). These exports are destined to various countries across the world including USA, Europe, Japan and Australia. The exports of pharmaceuticals have shown immense growth displaying a compound annual growth rate of 17.8% during the period 2003-04. In terms of the composition of exports, the share of basic drugs was 43%, fine chemicals and intermediates captured 55% of the share and 2% of herbals were exported from India (McKinsey, 2014). In terms of imports, China has accounted for India’s 66 % pharmaceutical imports (Price Waterhouse Coopers PwC, 2010).
Growth drivers of the Indian pharmaceutical industry
Prior to the introduction of the patents act of 1970, multinational companies dominated the Indian market. But, soon after the patents act, Indian companies started to enter the market and delivered expertise in the production of drugs at a very low cost (FICCI, 2018). The industry has displayed a high rate of growth through improved technology, range and the quality of products manufactured. In addition to this, demand drivers include the growing and ageing global population. The rise in infectious diseases has demanded greater access to healthcare services. Furthermore, affordable health care services have offered new opportunities for the growth of the industry (Tewathia, 2014).
The change in the favourable demographics, socio-economic changes, urbanisation has led to the rapid transition. The demand is driven by the active participation of pharmaceutical chemicals. Furthermore, many multinational companies have captured the Indian market through acquisitions and the launch of new products. Lastly, many multinational companies have also followed a differential price strategy to strengthen their presence in India through the availability and affordability of products (McKinsey, 2014).
Future of the Indian Pharmaceutical industry
However, the growth in the pharmaceutical industry is hindered by some challenges. The business of pharmaceuticals due to the rise in the drug discovery cost. In addition to this, government intervention in the form of hasher price controls and taxes has created pressure on the market. The government has laid down tight rules governing the development and production of medicines. Furthermore, over the past few years, the annual output of the pharma industry has flatlined.
The future of the pharmaceutical industry will be driven by profitability and operational excellence. The manufactures will be competing in terms of ground and increase in complexity, additional controls and market disruptions in the global supply. The industry needs to generate efficiency to drive the market by achieving cost efficiency. The future trend will be driven by companies specialising in differentiated products which will require reinventing the operative model and pursuing a systematic investment strategy.
- FICCI. (2018). Trends & Opportunities for Indian Pharma. Retrieved from http://ficci.in/spdocument/22944/india-pharma-2018-ficci.pdf.
- Industry, I. C. (2011). India Chem 2010 – Sustaining the India Advantage, 91–97.
- McKinsey. (2014). India Pharma 2020.
- Price Waterhouse Coopers PwC. (2010). Global pharma looks to India : Prospects for growth. PwC, 40. Retrieved from http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/pharma-life-sciences/publications/india-growth.jhtml.
- PwC. (2012). Gearing up for the next level of growth. Pharma Summit, 31. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.in/assets/pdfs/pharma/pharma-summit-report-31-10-12.pdf.
- Tewathia, N. (2014). Foreign Direct Investment in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 2(3), 20–26.