How to do the Chicago Manual of Style referencing?

Chicago Manual of Style referencing or more commonly the Chicago referencing style was incepted in 1906 by the University of Chicago Press (University of Chicago, 2017). It follows two styles: note & bibliography and the author-date system. Note and bibliography comprise of numerical in-text citations and footnoting bibliography [e.g. Chicago manual of referencing1], and mainly followed by authors of literature, history, and the arts.

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Types of measurement scales in survey questionnaires

Measurement scales while framing a questionnaire play an important role to understand the characteristics of the variables. A questionnaire is a collection of a set of questions. A survey, on the other hand, includes the process of making the questionnaire, collecting the responses, aggregating the data and analysing it (SurveyMonkey, 2019). Therefore, the questionnaire is a subset of a survey. A previous article discussed the important points to remember while making a questionnaire. It also mentioned about two different types of questionnaires.

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How to frame a hypothesis from research questions?

A hypothesis by definition is a proposition or a number of propositions that reflects a prediction. In simpler words, a hypothesis is a statement that assumes a relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable.  In research, hypotheses provide the basis for data collection and data analysis. The data analysis is essentially applications of research tools and techniques to prove or disprove the hypothesis. However, before testing, it is important to frame the hypotheses properly. This sometimes poses a challenge.

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How to develop questionnaire for correlation and regression test?

There different instruments to collect primary data and the most widely used is the questionnaire in a survey method. Correlation and regression tests are two of the basic statistical tools that are widely applied to analyze data. In research, these tests are particularly used when the researcher seeks to find relations between variables or impacts of variables on other variables in order to draw inferences. Correlation analysis helps to find the degree of linear association between any two variables. Regression analysis, on the other hand, helps to determine whether a set of variables (independent variables) have any impact on another variable (dependent variable). Here ‘impact’ means how much of the variations (change) in the values of the dependent variable can be explained by the variations (change) in the values of the independent variables. Furthermore, correlation analysis is done first. Once it is found that there is a significant relationship between the dependent and the independent variables, the researcher can proceed to conduct a regression analysis. Read more »

Preparing a solid thesis defense for the committee

When a thesis is evaluated internally within the department, then less than a month’s time is designated to prepare for the thesis defense. However, if it is sent to a panel of external examiners, then more than a month can be designated. This time varies for different Universities, colleges, institutes, and countries. The goal of this examination is to check the ability of the scholar to present their work before a pool of audience comprising of members of the thesis committee, faculty members and fellow scholars. Read more »

Challenges of using DEA-Solver for data envelopment analysis

Data Development Analysis (DEA) was developed in 1978, as a benchmarking technique for evaluating the efficiency or performance of a group of entities (Cooper, Seiford, & Tone, 2007). DEA analysis has emerged as a powerful tool of efficiency and benchmarking-based analyses, as it uses linear programming methodology. DEA analysis remains possible over various software. However, DEA Solver is the most recent and popular software for DEA analysis. Data Envelopment Analysis using DEA Solver, which is basically an MS Excel plugin and downloadable freely from DEA solver 8.0 includes 28 clusters of DEA models (“User ’ s Guide to DEA-Solver-Learning Version,” 2015). However, there are two versions of DEA solver, free and paid versions and can compute the results for maximum 50 decision-making units (DMUs). Read more »

How to come up with a research topic for PhD?

From the point of view of an academician, selecting a well-studied and appropriate research topic means that the researcher will conduct and will garner the interest of readers. When considered from the standpoint of a scholar, choosing the right research topic indicates that the researcher has clear idea of the course he has been enrolled with.  Read more »

What is the difference between systematic review and critical review?

Systematic review intends to find out the appropriate answers to the questions that have been developed in accordance with the research problem in a study. Thus, in accomplishing this objective, scholars implementing systematic review simply collect and present all the relevant scholarly evidence that confer to the eligibility criteria of an academic study.
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