A conceptual framework for factors affecting online shopping behaviour of generation Z and millennials

The previous articles on Hawkins Stern’s theory, Maslow’s theory and Kim, Ferrin and Rao’s (2008) model of online decision making shed light on critical factors that affect the buying behaviour of consumers towards online shopping. Moreover, the marketing strategies of e-commerce companies also play a role in influencing online shopping behaviour.

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How to frame interview questions for a qualitative study?

Interview is one of the qualitative research techniques that involve intensive interactions between the participant and the researcher. A set of open-ended questions act as a basis on which the interview is conducted.

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Importance of qualitative data mining in a research

Data mining is an essential part of any research where testing of a hypothesis or a framework or a model is required. Qualitative data mining plays a crucial role in most of the fields of study such as business, social sciences, and humanities. The methods of mining data may vary according to the discipline, but the principle procedure is same for all. It starts with finding out what data is required for the study, followed by the selection of the sample population.

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E-views advantages and disadvantages

E-views is the statistical package widely used by economists, researchers and analysts for statistical analysis, forecasting and model simulations (Aljandali and Tatahi, 2018).  It is used as a menu-driven object-oriented user interface. It allows writing simple programs in E-views programming.  This package offers multi-window design features that allow automation and presentation features. This article explains the comparative analysis of E-views advantages and disadvantages in the time series and panel data analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of the E-views are considered by comparing some of the commonly used statistical packages like STATA and SPSS.

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How to perform panel data analysis in E-Views?

E- Views offer an impressive toolkit that involves the series or the group of series that allows estimating panel data analysis ranging from the simplest to the complex types.  Performing data analysis in E-views is easier to understand as all the necessary statistical modelling can be performed by estimating the regression equation.  In addition to this, E-views allows the work files or the database from MS Excel, SAS, SPSS, STATA and Text file.  These work files can be used to perform a variety of statistical E-views including unit root test for checking stationarity, GARCH tests for heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation LM test, Granger causality test and least square test for performing the linear regression as steps in panel data analysis.

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The manual methods of calculating a sample size

Sample size calculation is the process used by social science researchers that helps to access the number of people needed to gather information from the people or collected data (Das et. al., 2016). Sample size simply indicates the number of people associated in a study. The sample size does not remain limited to quantitative study or clinical study where people participate but also qualitative studies whereby interviews and focus groups remain constructed. The sample size is dependent on the sampling plan of the study.

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How to write the abstract and the summary of a study?

Abstract and summary is the short version summarizing and describing the contents of a paper. They comprise of the same context but are different in a few ways. They provide the first impression of a paper and act as a preface to answer the reader’s questions;

  • What has been done in the paper?
  • How has it been done?
  • What is the research about?
  • Why has it been done?
  • What were the findings?

Things to consider

Points to remember while writing abstract and summary
Points to remember while writing abstract and summary

Abstract or summary is an important part is written at the beginning of a paper. However, they are always written after the completion of a project. Another aspect is that abstracts and summaries never include citations or references. They must be simple and easy to understand and should answer the questions mentioned in the above section. An abstract and summary must cover the complete research in a maximum of 1000 words. However, abstracts are usually limited to 500 words, summaries of 1000 words are usually termed as ‘Executive summaries’. If the paper is a scientific article, then write an abstract of a maximum of 300 words and a minimum of 150 words. The following points should be kept in mind while writing the abstract or the summary of a study:

  • the background or introduction
  • the rationale of the paper
  • aim of the research
  • literature reviews (only in case of summary and executive summary)
  • conceptual framework (in case of summary and executive summary)
  • methods used
  • findings of the research
  • conclusions and limitations

Things not to include

  • Lengthy background or contextual information.
  • Redundant phrases, unnecessary adverbs and adjectives, and repetitive information.
  • Acronyms or abbreviations.
  • References to other literature.
  • Using incomplete sentences and symbols.
  • Jargon or terms that may be confusing to the reader.
  • Citations to other works.
  • Any sort of image, illustration, figure, or table, or references.

Difference between abstract and summary

Type of paperJournals, Essays, and Masters’ ThesisThesis and Dissertations for PhD and Masters’
No. of words and length (pages) 150 to 300 words;
A quarter of page to one page abstract
300 to 1000 words;
One page to four page summary or executive summary
Contents Aim of the study, problem statement, methods, findings and limitations of the research Aim and objectives, background, literature review, problem statement, methods, findings, conclusions and limitations
Use of keywords Abstracts in scientific papers usually comprise of keywords No keywords needed
Type Critical and descriptive Descriptive and informative

Steps to follow

  1. First, complete the whole research and the writing of the paper.
  2. Extract the information.
  3. Plan the type of abstract or summary; informative, descriptive or critical. Informative are usually lengthy and briefly describes all the chapters of a thesis or dissertation. Descriptive comprises of only goals and findings of the study, and critical presents only findings of research papers.
  4. Provide information on aim, problem statement, methods, findings and conclusions of the main paper.
  5. Repeat the process and check if any important information is missing.
  6. Cross-check with the questions mentioned in the earlier section of the article.


Aim of the study

(AIM) The main aim of the current paper was to find the different aspects of abstract and a summary.

(PROBLEM STATEMENT) It was, however, found that there are certain differences between an abstract and a summary. Moreover, summaries are extended parts of abstracts. Therefore, it is important to assess the different aspects and the difference between an abstract and a summary.

(BACKGROUND) It is the short version summarizing and describing the contents of a journal or a dissertation or thesis. Abstract and summary comprise of the same context but are different in a few ways. They provide the first impression of a research paper.

(METHODS) The current paper compares different samples of abstracts and summaries from different journal papers and theses. A sample of 5 different journals and 5 different theses was explored to find the difference between them.

(FINDINGS) There is a significant difference between abstract and summary on the basis of type of research paper, no. of words and length, contents and type of abstract/summary.

(CONCLUSION AND LIMITATIONS) The current study found the presence of a significant difference. However, the study has certain limitations which need to be addressed in future for better understanding the difference between abstract and summary. The limitations has been presented at the end of the paper.

Steps to conduct the capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a method of estimating the risks of investing in a particular stock. It is mainly used by financial analysts and investors to decide what price they should pay for a particular stock. It was first used and developed by Harry Markowitz in 1952. Harry described the relationship between an investor’s risk and the expected return in CAPM. According to Markowitz, (2008), “the expected return of a particular security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security plus a risk premium. If the security or portfolio does not meet or exceed the required return, then the investment should not be entered into” (pg. 91). It means that, if Stock A is riskier than Stock B, the price of Stock A should be lower to compensate investors for taking on the increased risk.

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