Volatility only represents a high variability in a series over time.This article explains the issue of volatility in data using Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model. It will identify the ARCH effect in a given time series in STATA.
The previous article showed lag selection and stationarity for Vector Auto Regression (VAR) with three variables; Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFC) and Private Final Consumption (PFC). This article shows the co-integration test for VAR with three variables.
This article incorporates Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFC) and again performs the lag selection test and check for stationarity for both, GFC and PFC. Thus this article incorporates the VAR with three variables in STATA.
The previous article showed that the three-time series values Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFC) and Private Final Consumption (PFC) are non-stationary. Therefore they may have long-term causality. The general assumption, in this case, is that consumption PFC affects GDP, therefore these variables might be cointegrated.
Granger causality is a method to examine the causality between two variables in a time series. “Causality” is related to cause and effect notion, although it is not exactly the same. It is a statistical concept which is based on the prediction.