Ruel et al (2007)’s Model for online recruitment

According to Ruel et al (2007), “Online recruitment also falls under e-HRM which is an organization’s e-business system that uses web-based technologies for human resource management practices and policies”. The following figure gives the model for online recruitment proposed by Ruel et al (2007).

Figure 1 Online recruitment model (Source: Bondarouk, Ruel and Looise , 2011)
Figure 1 Online recruitment model (Source: Bondarouk, Ruel and Looise , 2011)

According to this model, the main participants or actors of online recruitment are the employers, job seekers and the intermediaries which are nothing but online recruiting mediums such as online consortiums, career websites, blog, etc. The model proposes four aspects of online recruitment by name strategy, goals, types and outcomes.  They are explained in detail below:

Initial Recruitment Strategy:  Any organization has three strategies based on which they recruit candidates (Lee, 2005). They are profit strategy, dynamic growth strategy and managerial strategy respectively. Profit strategy is a very standardized strategy that is adapted by renowned organizations which have mature activities. The recruitment here is known as recruitment by profile where the positions are described explicitly and in detail. The second type of strategy known as dynamic growth strategy is adapted by organization in which activities are not mature but in growing stage. The recruitment process here is not formalized. This strategy takes into consideration candidates with high experience and expertise.  The final strategies by name managerial strategy are meant for start-ups (Hall and Hall, 2003). Here there is an open recruitment process. The organization here considers young and dynamic people with competence and passion towards work

Goals of e-recruitment:  According to this model, there are three major goals of online recruitment by name efficiency and processes, applicant relationship management and employer branding and reputation.   The first goal of the online recruitment model is to make the recruitment process cost effective (Lepak and Snell, 1998). The second goal is to maintain better relationship with the candidates applying for the job (Parry and Tyson, 2008). The third goal of the online recruitment model is to yield a better reputation and brand image for the organization adapting the model (Martin and Hetrick, 2006).

Type of E-recruitment: E-recruitment according to this model is based on three types by name relational, transformational and operational. Operational recruitment is meant for processing applications of candidates for a short term relationship.  Relational recruitment is for long-term relationships and characterized by features like feedback and personalization of messages of candidate.  The third type by name transformational e-recruitment is based on strategic e-recruitment. It takes into consideration global talent management strategy, recognizing the difficult positions, skills and knowledge needed for these positions and then attracting and retaining individuals who fit into the required profile (Foster, 2005).

Outcomes of E-recruitment:  The three major outcomes of online recruitment are high commitment, high congruence and cost effectiveness.  The online recruitment model should reduce the cost incurred by organizations in recruiting candidates. It must create motivation, and job satisfaction for employees. Finally the recruitment process must be congruent in such a way that it results in a organization with efficient workforce.


  • Ruel H J M, Bondarouk T V, Looise J C (2004), E-HRM: Innovation or Irritation? An Exploration of Web-Based Human Resource Management in Large Companies, Purdue University Press/Lemma Publishers, Utrecht.
  • Parry E and Tyson S (2008), An Analysis of the Use and Success of Online Recruitment Methods in the UK, Human Resource Management Journal, p 257-274.
  • Lee I (2005), The Evolution of E-Recruiting: A Content Analysis of Fortune 100 Career Web Sites. Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, p 57-68.
  • Martin G and Hetrick S (2006), Driving corporate reputations and brands from the inside: A strategic role for HR,  Global Reputation Institute Conference, USA.
  • Beer M, Spector B, Lawrence P R, Mills D Q, Walton R E (1984), A Conceptual View of HRM in Managing Human Assets. Free Press, New York.
  • Foster L (2005), Confronting the global brain drain, Knowledge Management Review, New York, p 28
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