In my previous article Questionnaire development in theses and dissertation, I have discussed about the questionnaire development process, the next step is to administer the questionnaire. Questionnaire administration in a proper way and to chose the sample from population is important. It assists the researcher in incurring actual data. In addition it helps them in achieving the research questions and research objectives. The type of research instrument and its administration depends on the type of method and strategies opted.The table below highlights the appropriate strategy which required in questionnaires which can be structured and semi-structured.
|Survey||Structured and close-ended questionnaire|
|Case study||Interviews, observation, documentary analysis, and semi-structured interview questionnaires|
|Interview||Semi-structured & Open-ended questionnaires|
|Focus Groups & Nominal Group Technique||Unstructured and Semi-structured questionnaires|
Source: Saunders et al. (2009)
This article is focuses on questionnaire administration of survey and interview strategies. Administration of questionnaire involves two essential steps:
- Permission from the respective authority/respondents and
- Administration of questionnaire using appropriate route.
Steps to questionnaire administration
Questionnaires can be administered using different portals like:
- Face-to-face and
Both the administration of a pilot and final questionnaire requires interviewers or administrators even in case of self-administered. The steps to administration of questionnaire are:
Questionnaire administration in different cases
Administration of questionnaires in both survey and interview involves certain elements to consider upon. This include place of survey/interview, sample targeted and authority from whom permission needs to be sought. These elements are described using following scenarios as instances:
Questionnaires are e-mailed to the respondents on the day of individual appointment along with instructions. Furthermore, clarifications are made regarding the questions (if & when needed) followed by recording of answers.
Survey120 consumers visiting DLF Emporio Mall, Delhi.From individual consumers/respondents visiting the mall, over a period of a week.
Questionnaires are distributed by explaining the purpose of the study and instructions. From the HR department and individual respondents. After which appointment dates were fixed, with each of the respondents.
|No.||Scenario||Strategy applied||Sample targeted and Place of data collection||Permission sought||Administration procedure|
|1||To understand the ability to read English paragraphs among Class 4 students of State Government Schools.||Survey||90 students of all three sections of Class 4, belonging to both the genders. Survey to be taken in a Government run school based in Central New Delhi.||From School Principal and Respective Class Teachers.||Self-administered Explained the instructions in each of the two sections and guided the respondents constantly, with the help of an administrator and the class teacher, keeping in mind the age of the respondents.|
|2||To explore the constraints faced by teachers in maintaining an effective teaching-learning environment within inclusive classroom.||Interview||30 class & subject teachers of 15 prominent schools of Mumbai, where inclusive education is being imparted.||From the Principal and Human Resource Department (if any).||Face to face
Purpose and instructions are explained, after handing over the questionnaires. After which they are asked to write down their views.
|3||To examine the significance of organizational motivation on female employee retention and performance, in an IT firm.||Survey||300 female employees of an IT company, based in Hyderabad.||From the HR department and respective Department Head or Team Leader.||Electronic portal
The questionnaires along with instructions page are distributed among the targeted female employees. Upon receiving their complete information from the HR department and their prior consent.
|4||To understand the effect of employee performance on the motivation and recognition of Managers||Interview||40 Managers of 10 MNC based in Bangalore, Pune, Gurgaon and Trivandrum, across various departments.||To explore the effect of persuasion of International designer apparel brands on the degree of purchase by urban consumers.|
|6||To examine the security and privacy provided by e-retailers to their consumers’ personal and transaction information.||Interview||Service Managers of 10 big and small e-retailers functioning in India.||From the HR Department and individual respondents followed by fixed appointment dates with each of the respondents.||Telephonic interview
Questionnaires are e-mailed to the respondents along with instructions. Further clarifications were made regarding the questions (if & when needed) followed by recording of answers.
- Burns, N. & Grove, S.K., 1993. The practice of nursing research. Conduct, critique and utilization, Philadelphia: Saunders.
- Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A., 2009. Research Methods for Business Students 5th ed., Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.
- Siniscalco, M.T. & Auriat, N., 2005. Questionnaire Design, Paris, France.