Soil is formed from the gradual breaking and weathering of rocks and covers of the landmass of earth as a thin layer. It is a complete ecosystem in itself and its maintenance is of utmost importance for the continuity of life processes of microbes, plants and animals. However, the quality of soil ecosystem is compromised due to increasing human activities resulting in release of pollutants. Furthermore, one such pollutant contributing to soil pollution is the discharge of high concentration of heavy metals (as shown in the figure below). Most noteworthy, Lead occurs most abundantly on Earth, constituting 0.002% of the total crust (1). This article discusses the need for Lead bioremediation in soil. Furthermore, the use of bio-remediation to mitigate the impact has also been discussed.
In the previous article, bioremediation processes involved in treatment and removal of oil hydrocarbon pollutants was discussed. In the present article, the problem of plastic pollution and associated bioremediation solutions are reviewed. Plastic waste or debris are one of the most hazardous pollutant entering the seas and oceans, after oil spills and sewage discharge. First of all, plastic waste contributed 60-80% of the marine litter and in 2012, global plastic production reached an all-time high of 330 million tons per year. Furthermore, it is estimated that of the total plastic waste produced every year, most of the plastic waste enters landfills. However, approximately 13 million tons enters the oceans every year (1,2).
Oil spills have become a common sight in the oceans around the world. Such events are the direct result of human error during the transport of crude oil or refined petroleum products across countries. Remediation of oil spills have become an important point of focus for countries and environment agencies across the world. Read more »
In the previous article, the concept of bioremediation was introduced as an answer to the rising instances of environmental pollution. Although the act of bioremediation can be performed by a wide range of organisms including plants, fungi and microorganisms. Microbial remediation has proven to be the most advantageous and efficient process owing to its wide span of metabolic pathways and enzymes. In this article, bioremediation as a process has been classified, on the basis of application and cellular level processes by the microorganisms. Read more »
Contaminated sites, whether on land or in aquatic environments are increasingly becoming a frequent sight. This is due to rapid increase in population and a fast pace of technological advancement. So direct consequence of such large scale contamination is loss of sources for fresh air and water. On the other hand, exposure to dangerous chemicals lead to loss of natural habitat and its accompanying natural resources (2). Several strategies have been applied time and again to control or restore such polluted habitats. However these methods are either cost-intensive or inefficient in eliminating the pollutant. In such scenarios, bioremediation can be one of the best solutions to mitigate incidences such as:. Read more »
Organic waste often referred to as ‘green’ waste actually is that type of waste which originates from unprocessed and untreated materials such as food products, garden materials and lawn trimmings (Chernicharo, 2003). Organic waste commonly contains disposed biodegradable items scheduled to undergo further molecular breakage of carbon dioxide, methane gas or water. Read more »
Marine parks and marine reserves come under Marine Protected Areas (MPAs’), areas which are designated and effectively managed to protect marine ecosystems, processes, habitats and species. Which contribute to the restoration and replenishment of resources for social, economic and cultural enrichment (Reuchlin-Hugenholtz & McKenzie, 2015). These marine protected areas include subtidal and intertidal regions like wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs, seaweed and seagrass among others. According to the United Nations, as of 2014, a total of 3.41% of the world’s marine area is protected. Read more »
In comparison with urbanisation and industrialisation process at the global level, India is moving on a uniform pattern to become an urbanized country. The share of urban population in the country is growing by 6% per decade (Butsch, Sakdapolrak, and Saravanan 2012). It means that India will become up to the greater extent fully urbanized between 2040 and 2045. In the recent scenario, approximately 15% of the urban population of India is residing in one of the four largest metropolitan cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai which will grow to 42% by 2020 (Tripathi 2013). This growing pace of urbanization is posing health related problems for the urban population due to poor environmental hygiene. It is the result of the growing pace of industrialization that poses risks to the urban population in every dimension. Read more »