Air contamination is defined as the presence of toxins that affect the environment (Vallero 2011). India, as a rapidly developing nation, needs to manage its ecological issues well to minimise contamination of air, water and soil.
Mercury bioremediation processes as mercury occurs naturally in the environment and is found in both elemental inorganic and organic forms. It generally occurs in two oxidation states, Hg+1 and Hg+2.
Textile dyes are artificial or natural substances used to dye fabric. Artificial dyes are one of the worst contributors to soil pollution as they contain mutagenic, cytotoxic, cancer and allergy causing properties (Khandare & Govindwar 2015).
Chromium pollution has been well documented as a major threat that is responsible for causing damage to skin, liver, kidney and respiratory tract in human beings (2–4). Typically, trivalent chromium is readily oxidized into the hexavalent form and poses a high risk as soil and groundwater contaminant.
Arsenic is a heavy metal, known to occur naturally in the Earth’s crust, metal ores and sediments (both organic and inorganic forms). It is also found in the form of sulfides, oxides or salts of sodium, copper and iron among others. It exhibits different valences and is mostly encountered as trivalent Arsenite and pentavalent Arsenate, […]
Soil is formed from the gradual breaking and weathering of rocks and covers of the landmass of earth as a thin layer. It is a complete ecosystem in itself and its maintenance is of utmost importance for the continuity of life processes of microbes, plants and animals. However, the quality of soil ecosystem is compromised due to increasing human activities resulting in release of pollutants.
Plastic waste or debris are one of the most hazardous pollutant entering the seas and oceans, after oil spills and sewage discharge. First of all, plastic waste contributed 60-80% of the marine litter and in 2012, global plastic production reached an all-time high of 330 million tons per year.