In my previous article I have discussed how the validity can be ensured with respect to Quantitative and Qualitative analysis. This article discusses the threats to validity (internal and external) irrespective of the approach.
A study by Ary et al. (1996) categorized qualitative research/method into two distinct forms. Firstly participant observation, where the researcher is a participant of the study. Secondly non-participant observation, where the researcher observes but does not participate. It is in this non-participant observation where one can use the content analysis approach.
From traditional validity testing in quantitative research study, scholars have initiated determination of validity in qualitative studies as well (Golafshani 2003). However, according to Creswell & Miller (2000), the task of evaluating validity is challenging on many levels given the plethora of perspectives given by different authors at different time periods.
Measurement is a replicable and systematic process through which an object or instrument is quantified or classified as in the field of social science that deals with quantification of behaviour. In this case determining validity of the measuring instrument (questionnaire) holds utmost importance (Drost 2011).