8-step procedure to conduct qualitative content analysis in a research

A study by Ary et al. (1996) categorized qualitative research/method into two distinct forms. Firstly participant observation, where the researcher is a participant of the study. Secondly non-participant observation, where the researcher observes but does not participate. It is in this non-participant observation where one can use the content analysis approach.

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Validity in qualitative research

From traditional validity testing in quantitative research study, scholars have initiated determination of validity in qualitative studies as well (Golafshani 2003). However, according to Creswell & Miller (2000), the task of evaluating validity is challenging on many levels given the plethora of perspectives given by different authors at different time periods.

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