As mentioned in the previous article, increased R&D investments improves the sales and production of existing and new drugs of a company. Pharmaceutical R&D expenditures comprises
- drug filing,
- improved quality control,
- drug clinical tests,
- export charges and,
- inspection costs (Li & Hall, 2016).
According to a report by STATISTA, (2017), pharmaceutical R&D expenditures was valued at USD 159 billion globally in 2016.
Clothing industry is one of the major sectors of trade in the entire globe. Clothing industry has been existed because of the efforts of liberalization of the Uruguay Round of GATT. To get most out of the emerging conducive international trade scenario Indian clothing industry should embark the challenges based on the following lines: Continue »
Online shopping facilitates buying and selling of products and services beyond the geographical periphery. The array of interdependence and parameters that emerge from coalescence among consumer purchasing behaviour, economics and human behaviour lead to the emergence of the Marshallian economics model. The advantage of this model is that it provides an idea of a marketplace consumer behaviour (Omotoyinbo et al., 2017).
The Marshallian Economic was propounded by Alfred Marshall in order to propose the buying preferences of customers in the situation of product purchase (Biswas, 2012). Based on the gaps found in the Marshallian Economics, Psychoanalytic Theory and Pavlovian Theory of customer behaviour model were developed to fill them. The customers are given utmost preference in this economic model. Moreover, the model finds aggressive use in e-retailing services.
Divya Narang and Priya Chetty on August 13, 2019
The 21st-century corporate world has witnessed the phase of globalization. It has led to technological advancement and the removal of trade barriers across countries. This is important as the competitive advantages of different organizations differ in terms of availability of raw material, investment, technology and so on. Therefore, in order to ensure long term growth potential, organizations have started forming cross country mergers and acquisitions (M&A). In contrast to the domestic mergers, cross country mergers help businesses in realizing the scope of new market opportunities. This is evident from the rise in the volume of cross border M&A.
Sayan Mitra and Avishek Majumder on August 12, 2019
Supply chain cost management is the task of controlling the operational cost in order to enhance the profit margin of a business. It involves all activities of logistics and supply chain such as stocking, distribution, processing, packaging, procurement, and handling (Silva, Gonçalves, & Leite, 2014). Supply chain cost management has become very crucial for businesses due to the intensifying market competition (Lai & Cheng, 2016).
Demand forecasting is defined as an approach used for analyzing future demand in comparison to the previous ones. The purpose of demand forecasting is to apply future planning and decision in the domain of finance, logistics, operation and sales. Companies use a qualitative method of forecasting to analyse and evaluate the opinion of experienced staff rather than focusing on numerical values (Dwyer, et al., 2012). These methods are used for predicting any short term or internal forecasting on the basis of summative feedback of departmental heads. On the other hand, quantitative forecasting technique deals with numerical data focus on projection of trends on the basis of historical figures of the business. This method of forecasting is consistent and useful for long term scenario planning of the company.
Traditionally, consumer behaviour theories emerged from different psychological, anthropological and economic theories as marketers applied them to understand consumer wants. The Psychoanalytic theory classifies human psyche into three dimensions:
- Ego, and
International logistics requires many different options and requirements to be met in order for a business to operate internationally (Wood, 2012). International logistics is the design and management of a system that controls the flow of materials, through, and out of the international business unit. By taking a systems approach, the firm explicitly recognizes the linkages among the traditionally separate logistics components within and outside the corporation (David, 2003).
As mentioned in previous articles, the Millennials or the Generation Y or digital natives are those born between 1982 and 1994 and technology is a part of their life (Glass, 2007). Whereas Generation Z was born into it, from 1995 to 2010. Marketers use different strategic marketing methods to target the two groups based on their characteristics and values.