Amidst the increasing demand for healthcare services across the globe and reducing the rise of cost of those services, besides the persistent tug-of-war- between competing priorities, health spending is on constant rise. In 2013, the health spending was estimated to have increased by 2.8%— an upshot of 2% from 2012, making a total of US$7.2 trillion— nearly 10% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) (The Economist 2014). Continue »
Coal industry is an industry of high economic importance globally. The industry contributes to the economic development not only directly but also through the growth of many other industries where coal is the basic element like steel and power industries. Continue »
Manisha Rana and Indra Giri on June 17, 2017
Air contamination is defined as the presence of toxins that affect the environment (Vallero 2011). India, as a rapidly developing nation, needs to manage its ecological issues well to minimise contamination of air, water and soil. The major factors for air pollution in the country are:
Mercury bioremediation processes as mercury occurs naturally in the environment and is found in both elemental inorganic and organic forms. It generally occurs in two oxidation states, Hg+1 and Hg+2, they are commonly found as:
- elemental mercury,
- mercuric chloride,
- mercuric sulfide (cinnabar ore),
- and methylmercury.
Textile dyes are artificial or natural substances used to dye fabric. Artificial dyes are one of the worst contributors to soil pollution as they contain mutagenic, cytotoxic, cancer and allergy causing properties (Khandare & Govindwar 2015). This is aggravated by the fact that the textile dye industry release by-products in the form of effluent, causing extensive pollution. However, existing physio-chemical technologies to clean up polluted water or soil are expensive and cause secondary problems in terms of disposal. Continue »
Arnab Chakraborty on June 13, 2017
Edwin Austin Abbey was an American muralist, illustrator and painter. He rose to prominence during the beginning of what is now known as the “golden age” of illustration. His works had medieval, Shakespearean and Victorian subjects. Despite a heterogenous choice of forms and themes, his oeuvre remains firmly cemented in the British woodblock artists of the 1860s’. For a long period, he was an expatriate in England by choice and his painting reflects the transatlantic richness. It is infused with the medieval and renaissance imaginaries which were in vogue during the Victorian and Edwardian fin de siècle.
Bio remediation is a technology that ‘treats’ environmental pollution using microbes, plants or their by-products. It helps in removing xenobiotic and recalcitrant pollutants through physical or chemical methods. Pharmaceutical industry releases large quantities of recalcitrant pharmaceutical by-products. Additionally, farming and municipal wastes contribute to the pollution. Although pharmaceutical products are biologically active, they are non-biodegradable and recalcitrant in nature, which makes pharmaceutical pollution difficult to be rid of using conventional methods (1).
Shruti Datt on May 31, 2017
In the previous article Drug related hypersensitivity, prevalence, diagnosis and therapeutic considerations, we discussed about how different drugs lead to different allergic responses. However, it is important that mechanism of different drug is studied which leads to ADR. In the present article Abacavir, a drug which is used for the treatment and prevention of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) (Hewitt et al., 2002) is being discussed. Abacavir is a synthetic carbocyclic nucleoside which is categorised under the class of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Continue »
‘Goods and Services Tax’ (GST) is a unified indirect tax which replacing all the other indirect taxes present in India such as sales tax, Value Added Tax (VAT), entertainment tax and service tax. The taxation system of India so far has been a complex web of different corporate, property and personal income taxes which made it seem opaque and vague. Until recently, different states followed different indirect tax rates for managing the movement of goods. Not only did the tax rates differ from state to state, but the types of tax were also inconsistent. The country’s complex taxation system has often been attributed as one of the barriers to not only growth of real estate sector but overall economic growth. Continue »
In the previous article, the hazards and possible solutions for lead and arsenic pollution from the perspective of bioremediation, were discussed. This article on the other hand, explores problems posed by chromium pollution in soil and the possibility of bioremediation as solution. It is well known that chromium metal exists in various forms in the environment, mainly as trivalent [Cr (III)] and hexavalent [Cr (VI)] cation. However, the water soluble hexavalent chromium is the most toxic form of the element with strong carcinogenic properties. Continue »